Therefore from the above explanation, it can be concluded that the use of a relay at the collector of transistor Q1 would have caused early switching of the load circuit before the battery’s end of discharge voltage. The circuit designed in this project has the following circuit sections –, 1) Zener Diode Circuit for detecting cut off terminal voltage of the battery, 2) Transistor circuit to operate the relay, 3) Diode circuit for back current protection, 4) LED indicator circuit for indication of battery discharge. The use of batteries requires its own kind of precautions and handling. 3) Diode Circuit – A diode circuit is connected parallel to the relay coil for back current protection from the load device. Arduino Battery Over-Discharge Protection (O-DP) Ask Question Asked 6 years, 3 months ago. Charge Controller For 12V Battery Over Discharge Under Voltage Protection. It is important that the relay voltage rating should be less than the cut-off voltage of the battery. Copyright © 2020 WTWH Media LLC. Typical rechargeable lithium ion battery cells can safely operate down to 2.75V/cell. Even protection circuit is added on lithium batteries, users should avoid over charge and over discharge during the use of lithium batteries. 12V batteries are widely used by makers in DIY projects, solar power supplies, etc. The base of the transistor Q2 is connected to the collector of the transistor Q1. As the battery is attached to an electronics device and it starts discharging, its terminal voltage starts dropping. Various battery chemistry require specific charging profiles to optimize performance and prevent safety issues during charge. When the zener diode is in non-conduction state and there is not sufficient voltage at the base of the transistor, the collector current is short-circuited to ground through emitter and collector voltage is dropped. In order to make the most of the COVID-19 pandemic... BSLBATT Lithium launches renewable energy storage solution When a battery is charged, its terminal voltage i.e. That means the voltage difference between the collector to emitter of Q1 is very less but it has sufficient voltage which can drive the base of the transistor Q2. These issues are often ignored by the consumers too. Features: 1. China H... For “BSLBATT” (Best Solution Lithium Battery), the world leader in lithium batter... Add: No.08, 12 / F, Unit 2, Zhongxin City Times, No.3, Jiangbei Civilization First Road, Huizhou, China, Address: No.08, 12 / F, Unit 2, Zhongxin City Times, No.3, Jiangbei Civilization First Road, Huizhou, China. if in the circuit, a 9V relay is used then it will never get energize at 6.27 V. That is why 5V relay is used in the circuit. voltage between the anode and cathode of the battery increases. But in this state, the Q1 is not fully ON as the base to emitter voltage till now does not reach to 0.65 V. This leakage current will be zero when the battery voltage is below 5.9 V but to cut off the battery at 6.2 V, another stage of switching transistor with transistor Q2 is used to get an accurate cut in voltage of 6.2 V. The transistor Q2 gives low voltage indication and also disconnect the load from the battery when the battery voltage is below 6.2 V. Therefore transistor Q2 will start conducting and the voltage at the collector to emitter of transistor Q2 is almost zero since all the current drains to the ground. Economic growth and growing popula... Lithium Batteries for Floor Machines After understanding the functioning of this project, protection circuits for other cut-off limits can also be designed by proper selection of the zener diode and relay with the same circuit. A current limiting resistor is connected in series with the LED to avoid any damage to the LED by excessive voltage. So the base of transistor Q1 will start conducting and acts like a close circuit. If the terminal voltage of a battery goes below a lower threshold limit, the battery starts dying prematurely. We will use a similar circuit, but change the resistance and make it … Thus the entire collector current gets a shorted path and current will start flowing from collector of Q1 to its emitter, finally to the ground. The base of the transistor Q2 is connected to the collector of the transistor Q1, so the collector voltage of the transistor Q1 will be switching the transistor Q2. SR-L2410A DC voltage controller is installed on top of the battery Connect a 15V 2A AC-DC adaptor or 12C solar panel to the controller, power can be cut-off power when 12V SLA battery is full; Protect battery from overcharged and over-discharged to increase battery service life; LED display battery storage level The 10k pre-set resistor is used to calibrate the readings on arduino; these readings are used by arduino to trigger the relay, the calibration of this setup will be discussed … The Terminal Voltage of Battery can be above 6.2V- When the battery voltage is above 6.2 V then the cathode of the zener diode (D1) will be above 6.2 V. In this case, zener diode will breakdown and will start conducting from cathode to anode terminal (as shown in below image). The over-discharge protection monitors the cell voltage, turning off the output when the voltage drops below a preset “off” threshold. When the collector of the transistor Q2 will provide ground to one end of the relay then only, the relay will energize. It is always recommended to follow cell manufacturer’s specific electrical parameters such as maximum discharge/charge current, operating Voltage, as well as operating temperature as they are some of crucial design elements to ensure battery safety, performance, and longevity. 12V Battery Charging Controller Protection Board Module, Undervoltage Low Voltage Cut Off Automatic Switch Recovery Protection Controller Module As the base of the transistor Q2 is connected to the collector of Q1 but the potential at the collector of Q1 is almost zero because all the current has grounded, So the conduction of Q1 will ground the base of transistor Q2 and the transistor Q2 will be in the non-conducting state. This pack is *highly unlikely* to have any over OR under discharge protection. Viewed 2k times 3. The discussed over discharge protection circuit for 12v battery consists of a voltage divider which is responsible for stepping down the input voltage and reduce to narrow range where arduino can read the voltage. When a battery is charged, its terminal voltage i.e. Fig. Battery guards prevent this excessive discharge by disconnecting the battery from loads in an under-voltage situation. Overcharging causes damage to the battery and creates a safety hazard, including fire danger. So, using two batteries in series set the cut-off limit to 6.2 V. So, a zener diode of 6.2 V reverse peak voltage is used to detect the cut-off limit in the design of the circuit. Generally, almost all Li-ion battery chargers use a constant current/constant voltage charging algorithm. Discharging a lithium cell this low is stressful to the cell and reduces cell lifetime. |, “Is your battery protected when battery is over-charged or over-discharged?” Our customers usually asked this. Battery over-discharge protection . Induction cooking etc. Even protection circuit is added on lithium batteries, users should avoid over charge and over discharge during the use of lithium batteries. It is 80 ohms for just being on the safe side. So current in milli-amperes will start flowing from collector to emitter. However, this is stressful on the battery and will reduce the lifetime of the battery. Discover over 476 of our best selection of 1 on AliExpress.com with top-selling 1 brands. Opens image gallery. A major problem with the use of batteries is their over discharging and overcharging. Now at a voltage below 6.2 V the transistor Q1 will conduct but it will not in its full saturation state. The back current from a high current drawing load can permanently damage the battery that is why this diode circuit is used for back current protection. On full charging, the terminal voltage reaches a peak value which is an indication of 100 percent charging. When talking about batteries I find it irrelevent not to mention the load that's applied. From the above practical observations, it is can be analyzed that the practical voltage at which the battery disconnects from the load is 6.27 V. Therefore the battery will cut off when the battery voltage of each Li-ion battery is at 3.15 V approximately. For e.g. The percentage or level of charging of a battery is therefore estimated by its terminal voltage. However, when an unprotected lithium cell is discharged past the minimum voltage level you run the risk of damaging the cell and ultimately lead to degraded cycle-life, unstable voltage characteristics and swelling of cells from internal chemical reaction. This module can protect battery from burnout during charging or discharging. $11.29. 2) Transistor circuit – The transistor circuit is used to operate the relay. Shop the top 25 most popular 1 at the best prices! my question is about how I best protect my batteries from over discharge whilst using the inverter. The other case can be when the Terminal Voltage of Battery can be below 6.2 V. When the battery voltage drops down below 6.2 V then the zener diode will no longer remain in the conduction state. On considering BC547 transistor, when the voltage across the base to emitter is between 0.65 V to 0.7 V then the transistor acts as a short circuit. I will use Tensai Li-Ion TR-26650LI batteries. The circuit is based on the working of zener diode. A zener diode when connected in reverse bias configuration and its cathode voltage is below its breakdown voltage then zener acts like an open circuit. A good battery protection circuit will also provide over-discharge protection. Now the zener diode will block the current through it due to reverse bias which will cut off the base current of the Q1 also. Lithium ion battery, like mobile battery, includes cell, PCM and case. Your email address will not be published. The different voltage readings taken from the circuit are summarized in the following table –. voltage between the anode and cathode of the battery increases. BATTERY PROTECTION IC WITH DISCHARGE CONTROL FUNCTION FOR 1-CELL PACK Rev.1.3_03 S-8250A Series 3 Product Name Structure 1. But in the experiment, resistance R1 is higher than 55 ohms. So to be on the safe side, the cut-off voltage can be taken 6.2 V and therefore, a zener of 6.2 V is used in the circuit. “Is your battery protected when battery is over-charged or over-discharged?” Our customers usually asked this. As the current at base of the transistor starts increasing it acts like a variable resistance, the value of this resistance starts decreasing as current increases. Over-discharge Protection Battery Charge Controller 20A durable High quality. In this electronics project, a zener diode based circuit will be designed to protect a battery from over discharging. The purpose of connecting the diode in this manner is to operate it in reverse biased condition. BSLBATT’s... What is the Best Battery for Cold Weather? So in this experiment, the transistor Q1 has high gain and will amplify the micro amperes leakage current to milli-amperes current. Dec 07,2018. Brand New. But as the Q2 is in OFF state so its collector is at the potential of battery voltage so the relay will not activate and the LED NO(normally open) pin of the relay will also remain in off state. $13.09. The series resistance of the zener diode can be calculated by the following equation –, Maximum Power dissipation of zener diode, Pz = 250mV, Maximum zener current, Iz can be calculated as follows. Over Discharge Conditions Typical rechargeable lithium cells can safely operate down to 2.75V/cell. Thanks in advance. That is why the sales from BSLBATT usually ask our customers to tell us the application of their battery, the charge condition and discharge … Customer Support and Superior Service. A key element of a battery protection circuit are the MOSFETs used to switch the cell in and out of the circuit. When the two Li-ion batteries will be connected with the load then there can be two cases as follow –. When relay gets de-energized then the polarity of the relay gets reversed and a back current will flow from the coil, this may damage the circuit. 4) LED indicator circuit – The LED indicator circuit is connected at the NC point of the relay. In this project, batteries with a cut-off limit of 3.1 V are used for power supply. Picture Information. The DW01A chip is a battery protection device for a single cell LithiumIon battery and it protects the cell from over and under charging,reverse connection and short circuit. Note that up to five cells can be monitored and balanced. A complete battery-pack circuit, the bq77905 uses external FET switches for charge, discharge, and protection control. A battery will have more capacity per charge if it is discharged all the way. In order to protect the batteries from over discharging, I have to know, when is the battery discharged. To protect the load and battery from over-discharging, we will build a protection circuit for 12V batteries. On full charging, the terminal voltage reaches a peak value which is an indication of 100 percent charging. Discharging a lithium cell this low is stressful to the cell and reduces cell lifetime. Various considerations must be given prior to designing a device requiring rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries. This diode is known as fly back diode or freewheel diode. 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Let's take a look at a popular protection board circuit in use on 18650 batteries, the Tenergy 23002 PCB with a … The same is true for undervoltage conditions, though to a lesser extent. 2,777 NiMH cells are cheaper and safer than lithium ion batteries (brand name vs brand name), and, like Li-ion batteries, can deliver a lot more current than alkaline cells. Main function of PCM, a. Therefore a diode (D3) is used across the relay to prevent the circuit from the back current when the relay is de-energized. That is why another stage of switching transistor with transistor Q2 is connected for setting accurate cut-off voltage to 6.2 V. A zener diode requires a series resistance which limits the flow of current through it above its current rating, this will prevent the zener diode from overheating and getting damaged. The transistor (BC457) has a minimum gain of 110 so the base of the transistor needs a very less current to conduct. How it Works. The circuit includes an LED indicator section also which will light up the LED as the battery discharges below the limit and require recharging. This XH-M609 battery over discharge protection module is a Power Supply Module/Battery Charger Control Module, With an Input Voltage: DC 7~80V, ST processing chip, stable performance, high integration and durable. I like to power my electronic projects with two nickel metal hydride batteries in series. Let use a solar charge controller not for charging but for the build it protection on the discharging Come and join Noskillsrequired channel. This degrades the recharge capability of the battery as well as its efficiency. $10.73. With the use of series resistance, zener can provide a regulated voltage at the output. As the 3.7 V Li-ion battery charge upto 4.2 V so, two Li-ion batteries (in series) fully charge voltage is 8.4 V. So here the maximum supply voltage from the battery, Vs = 8.4 V, Now by above equation resistance can be calculated as. The diode will be used to drive switching transistors which will operate the relay. In most of the commonly used portable electronic devices like laptops, smartphones, and others, the Li-ion batteries with 3V of lower threshold limit of terminal voltage are used but some manufacturers design Li-ion batteries with a lower cut-off limit of 2.7 V also. For calculating R1 the Zener current has to be calculated by the following method. This is a low voltage protection module, not included any battery. 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