Among the principles that OEE holds as true are the idea that the rational self-interests of individuals do not conflict, and that initiating force against others (murder, slavery, theft, etc.) “Objective” here does not mean “mind-independent” or “agent-independent.” It means “based on facts of reality” and “not a matter of faith, personal whim or arbitrary convention.” Objectivism understands that values are relational to each individual, but also that the relationship is a matter of fact, not a matter of faith or whims. Indefinite groups or classes of people don’t have rights. It would seem that one is saying that a person whose action produced bad consequences due to factors outside his possible knowledge was acting immorally. The dictator uses false ideas to justify his initiations of force, so that people will accept roles as cronies and/or victims, rather than fighting back. So, for Objectivism, the result and reward of moral action–the good–involves more action. Can’t the man keep the woman alive and extract value from her that way? Food is not “valuable in itself,” apart from the needs of the hungry person. Bear in mind that the right to property is a right to action, like all the others: it is not the right to an object, but to the action and the consequences of producing or earning that object. It is not a guarantee that a man will earn any property, but only a guarantee that he will own it if he earns it. Deontology deals with intentions and motives. Consequentialism and Deontological theories are two of the main theories in ethics. 7-6-17: Added italicized summation sentences to the introductions of the theories. Is Objectivist Ethical Egoism a form of deontology? According to Objectivism, all genuinely normative guidelines–that is, all normative guidelines based in reality–are hypothetical. Consequentialism splits normative ethics into two independent parts: a theory of the good, and a theory of right action. On the level of particular duties, both “agent-centered” and “patient-centered” duties–duties based on one’s own agency and duties based on the agency of others–are generally understood as being in the Kantian tradition, and are often contained together in deontological theories. Objectivist epistemology holds that, in order to successfully predict the future (not exactly, but within certain parameters) human beings must observe the world with their senses and develop principles by reasoning on the basis of those observations. (Please note here that intellectual goals can serve one’s life in very indirect ways, as in many cases of increasing one’s knowledge of highly abstract, theoretical topics.) It is the application of the principles of Objectivist metaphysics and epistemology to the task of maintaining and enriching the active process that is one’s own life. It only directly supports his life if he is the one to eat it. Deontology takes duties or categorical imperatives, not consequences, as the foundation for ethics. 4.1 Consequentialism 4.2 Deontology . There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. He is living in harmony with his essential nature as a “rational animal.” Thus, eudaimonia is supposed to be a holistic condition of a person, potentially observable by others. Of these, consequentialism determines the rightness or wrongness of actions by examining its consequences. This pattern of progression and building applies even to goals that are not traditionally regarded as “instrumental” to any other actionable goal, such as listening to music, contemplating art, and non-reproductive sexual activity. Objectivist virtues are not fundamentally character traits, but principles of action grasped by reason. This can be seen in the lack of productive innovation and the drunkenness rampant in the later years of the Soviet Union. Or is it the consequences that analysis would show are most probable at the time of the decision to act? In the academic revival of virtue ethics that followed, Aristotle’s ethics became the most popular model for the basic concerns of the virtue ethicists. Rather, they consist of goals that are the result of careful thought and planning. Virtue ethics eschews both consequences and simple duties as the fundamental basis of ethics, in favor of the development of inherently “moral” character traits. The ethics and morality behind these theories all deal with what is right, The Theory : Deontology, Consequentialism, And Virtue Ethics, Warby Parker : The Venture Initiation Program Of The University Of Pennsylvania. ), Virtue ethical theories can be divided into those that are universalist and those that are culturally contextualist. What forces guide our ethical judgment or how we will react to any moral predicament? So here we see that Objectivism identifies eudaimonia with successful and sustainable life. (Such is the meaning of the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.). According to consequentialism, the morality of an act can not be measured only in terms of its consequences, while the same character is found on deontology, according to the principles which governed the decision to produce this act. Thus, it is in the rational interests of each applicant that the company choose the best fit for the job, even if that applicant is not himself. Or a theory can evaluate the character traits one demonstrates when one acts–this is called virtue consequentialism. One should do things that improve one’s ability to reason, such as gaining knowledge and learning how to think. Ross supplemented his duty to “promote a maximum of aggregate good” with statements of what he considered to be intrinsic goods: virtue, knowledge, justice, and the pleasure of others, (not of oneself.) So what is the field of knowledge that morality applies? German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was an opponent of Consequentialism, and propagated a deontological moral theory of ethics, which is popularly known as Kantianism theory of Ethics. It’s in its own category, as an ethics based on the active pursuit of values that sustains, builds, and constitutes one’s own life. Thus, OEE says that a chosen action is moral, if and only if it represents a proper application of a life-promoting moral principle to the acting individual’s current circumstances. To know how to live as the kind of organism one is, one must know both how to acquire knowledge, and what sort of organism one is. Now if we contrast this woman with one who exhibits the opposite qualities, it should be fairly apparent who will tend to become an architect in a sustainable way, (what we would typically call a “successful” architect.) (Research, of course, is not the sole or primary purpose of universities, whether public or private. Being comatose or in a vegetative state until one dies is not “life” in the relevant sense, and it cannot be sustained beyond a few days without the intervention of other humans, who are actually living and sustaining themselves as humans. It takes “life” and “value” as the fundamental ethical concepts. In this essay, I will more concentrate on consequentialism, especially utilitarianism, and deontology to make compare and contrast analysis of each other and how each case works differently and causes divergent result in the same scenario. To understand why this is not the case–why OEE is not a form of consequentialism at all–we have to look at the nature of consequentialism and the specific nature of the “good” that OEE aims at: the agent’s own life. Modern virtue ethics is a relatively young movement in the modern academic world. So I think “preference utilitarianism” should be called “preference consequentialism,” to avoid confusion. ★ Consequentialism vs deontology: Add an external link to your content for free. Thus, any individual who wants to initiate force will need to attempt to manipulate the beliefs of others so that they do not all attack him, as their rational interests would dictate. So we’ve looked at three major classes of normative ethical theories: consequentialism, deontology and virtue ethics. There’s a wealth of resources on Objectivism listed on my Books and Links page, as well as at the ARI eStore. Competition for profit in the market is how the lion’s share of progress has been made in methods and technology of production. When using the quality principles approach, one should take the point of view that in living their lifestyle they should try growing quality in all that they do (Boylan, Chapter 11, 2009). Consequentialist philosophers differ on whether practices that tend to increase that which is morally good, but increase it less than an available alternative practice, can be called morally right. Deontology names a type of ethical theory that judges human practices based on whether they are consistent with certain duties that the theory holds as intrinsically moral. Ethics can be referred to as well-based standards, He began his argument from the premise that a moral theory must be grounded in the unconditional goodness of a good will. 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