herodotus histories book 1 analysis

Prior to that were the Illiad and the oddyse by homer during the 700's b.c. Herodotus' Histories has it all: tales of war, eyewitness travel writing, notes on flora and fauna and accounts of fantastic creatures such as winged snakes. THUCYDIDES, an Athenian, wrote the history of the war in which the Peloponnesians and the Athenians fought against one another. Croesus deliberates whether to ally with Athens or Sparta; prehistory of the 'Ionians' (ancestors of the Athenians) and 'Dorians' (Spartans) (56). How divine anger (Nemesis) got Croesus. Chr. I really enjoyed this book because it is the first book of history ever written by man. His administration of justice and iron-fisted policies. This is the first history book in Western history. Gyges murders the king; Gyges is mentioned by Archilochus (12). Herodotus traveled extensively around the ancient world, conducting interviews and collecting stories for his book. Cyrus fulfilled the prophecy dooming the descendants of Gyges, and himself misinterpreted the oracle (91). A later Babylonian queen, Nitocris, and her achievements in fortification and the diversion of rivers (185-86). Rape of Helen; negotiations fail (3). His invasion of Egypt leads Hdt. Further conquests of Harpagus. Written about 440 BC, the Histories tell the story of the war between the Persian Empire and the Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. Book One has three key elements I will discuss in this analysis: the introduction, Herodotus’ method and his structure. How Cyrus, en route to Babylon, grew angry at the river Gyndes for drowning his horse, and defeated the river by dividing it into 360 channels (189). Book IX of Herodotus' Histories is the conclusive climax to his work, as the victories at Plataea and Mycale complete the improbable Greek victory over Persia. The Battle of Thermopylae, which Herodotus recorded in his writing The Histories, was one of the most arduous and notable battles of western history. Croesus blames the gods for his decision to attack (87). Cyrus advances east to attack the Massagetae; geography and customs of the Massagetae. Alyattes is tricked into thinking the Milesians have plenty of food, so he makes peace and builds new temples (22). Croesus dismisses the mercenaries. ; some stolen from Croesus' half-brother Pantaleon, whom Croesus tortured to death (92). Cyrus gives Croesus permission to send symbolic chains to Apollo at Delphi and reproach the god for ingratitude (90). A Dorian parallel for intertribal rivalry. The Histories is exactly what it purports to be—it's a history text explaining who the important figures were in human history, what their effects were on each other, who won which wars, and what the real reason was behind those wars. His son Astyages is in power. Extent of the Lydian empire under Croesus (28). Examples illustrating the wealth and productivity of Babylon and environs (192). Herodotus The Histories is a brick of a book.It’s 750 pages of history and ethnography with a loose Greek- Persian theme to it. Cyrus accepts this plan; Croesus is sent back to Persia with Cyrus' son Cambyses in his care (208). Harpagus confesses and reveals how he was fooled (117). Some Phocaeans defy a curse to resettle at Phocaea; others move to their colony on Corsica (165-66). The story of king Croesus (1.1-1.94) Map of the Aegean world in c.480 BCE. All content copyright © 1995–2020 Livius.org. In Antiquity, books consisted of papyrus scrolls. Book One. The Scythians attack Egypt without success. Why Croesus said this: to save his countrymen. What Croesus learned about Sparta: that she had recently beaten Tegea (in the northern Peloponnesus) in war, and that long before their lawgiver Lycurgus had given the Spartan state its form (65). The miraculous survival of a beloved king or leader is a very common folkloristic motif. Herodotus'Histories, book 1. summary and comments by JonaLendering. Another alliance is concluded with the Egyptian pharaoh Amasis. Croesus of Lydia (ruled c. 560-546 BC) was the first eastern king to encroach on Greek freedom (6). Burial customs of the Persians and Magi; sacrifices (140). Analysis. The angry Megacles forces Pisitratus into exile in Macedonia, where he spends ten years amassing an army with his sons Hippias and Hipparchus (61). Battle of Sardis; Cyrus uses camels to defeat the Lydian cavalry. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. The suicide of Tomyris' son (213). What is certain, however, is that Cyrus conquered Croesus' kingdom. Harpagus is Cyrus' general. This logos ends with a digression on Lydian customs. The Histories open with a prologue in which the author announces that he will describe the conflict between the Greek and the non-Greek peoples (= Persians) and will explain how they came into conflict. Croesus' son Atys asks to be allowed to go and fight the boar (37). Herodotus the great Greek historian was born about 484 BCE, at Halicarnassus in Caria, Asia Minor, when it was subject to the Persians. (Each was named after one of the Muses.) This has been interpreted as a reference to Lydia, and as evidence that Croesus was executed, but this is almost certainly incorrect. His attack on the Assyrians; their capital of Babylon and its wall are described (177-78). The half-hearted support of Sparta for the Greeks of Asia Minor; the Spartan warning to Cyrus, and his scornful reply. The public auction of young women for marriage (195-96). Cyrus attacks and defeats Astyages, thus angering Croesus (73-4). We may compare this story with the tales about the last pharaoh of independent Egypt Nectanebo II, the British king Arthur, the German emperor Frederic Barbarossa, Adolf Hitler and Elvis Presley. Hdt. Harsh rule of the Scythians in Asia Minor is ended after 28 years by Cyaxares (106). Croesus' advice: emasculate the Lydians by making them singers, dancers, and salesmen (155). A fantastic, magical read! The fabulous golden treasures in the shrines at Babylon (183). A delightful new translation of what is widely considered the first work of history and nonfiction. This English commentary treats Herodotus' work as historical narrative and as literature, incorporating the results of recent scholarly research in Greek history … How the Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus (c. 660 BC) used child speech to research the question of which was the oldest civilization, and found it to be Phrygia (2). ); Croesus' sister is given to Cyaxares' son Astyages as part of the treaty. The Spartans are battling the Argives (their neighbors to the northeast) over Thyreae. The queen summons Gyges, and offers him a choice: die himself, or kill the king and marry her. Climate and dialects of the Ionian Greeks (142). Reading and Textual Analysis. In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid … A valuable gift from the Spartans to Croesus, a huge bronze bowl, disappears at Samos (an island off the Ionian coast); conflicting accounts of what happened to the bowl (70). Advice of Sandanis the Lydian to Croesus, preparing to attack Cappadocia (a territory of the Persians); Croesus advised not to attack; rough nature of Persian civilisation makes them an unworthy target (71). Origin of Croesus' hatred for Cyrus the Persian King. Further remarks on the fortifications of Babylon (179-81). The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. Reconciliation of Megacles and Pisistratus; Athenians tricked into believing that Athene (in fact a costumed woman of Attica) was bringing Pisistratus back in a chariot (60). How the Spartans asked the Delphic oracle about conquering Arcadia, misinterpreted the oracle, and were beaten by the Tegeans (66). Customs of the Caunians (172). How the oracle defended itself and Apollo against the accusations of Cyrus. Naval battle of Phocaeans from Corsica vs. Carthaginians (Tunisians) and Tyrrhenians. reserves judgement; he will tell the history of states large and small, with an awareness of human instability (5). Astyages puts Harpagus in command of the Medes; Cyrus' first victory is assured by defections among the Medes (127). Researches of Hdt on the non-Greek nature of Pelasgian speech (57-8). Factual accounts of military matters on land and at sea, commanders, governments, and rulers are juxtaposed with Greek mythology. This is a report of great and wonderful deeds by Greeks and Barbarians. In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and Mycale. Reading Herodotus remains a rewarding experience, for our human nature has not changed much over the past 2,500 years. Cyrus decides to advance into Lydia and surprises Croesus; excellence of Lydian soldiers (79). Europeans; Darius Fails To Conquer Scythia; Greek Colonies In Libya (Cyrene, Barca); Persia Invades … Astyages has Harpagus' son roasted and fed to Harpagus, then reveals the deed. Herodotus Questions and Answers - Discover the eNotes.com community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on Herodotus Book 3 resumes the narrative of Persian expansion after the discussion of Egypt in Book 2. He aligns himself with the Arabs (which offers Herodotus … The Histories of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. Croesus invokes Zeus in three aspects (god of hearth, purification, and friendship) to punish Adrastus; but then Croesus forgives the penitent Adrastus, who commits suicide (44-5). Solon the Athenian lawgiver visits Croesus; the Athenians were bound to keep his laws for ten years (29). Atys argues that a boar cannot kill him with a spear; Croesus agrees and lets him go (39-40). Croesus is taken prisoner, and placed on a pyre, but is miraculously saved by Apollo. Rape of Io by Phoenician traders as Persian version of origin of East-West conflict (1). Solon names Cleobis and Biton, who won a lasting reputation for piety by pulling their mother to the temple of Hera in an ox-cart, the second most fortunate (31). The conquests of Cyrus. Strange portent of the self-boiling kettle does not convince Hippocrates of Athens to disown his son Pisistratus. This is a book about the multiple worlds that Herodotus creates in his narrative. He explains who is powerful in Asia Minor, including Candaules, Gyges, Alyattes, and Croesus, among others. Pisistratus marries Megacles' daughter, but fears to have children because of the curse on the Alcmaeonids (Megacles' ancestors) and so practices birth control by continually sodomizing Megacles' daughter. It merely says that Cyrus went north along the Tigris, defeated the Ly..., killed their king and took their capital. He assembles all the tribes of the Persians and wins their loyalty by showing them the good life of ease and feasting (125-26). Attacks by Alyattes' son Croesus on Ephesus and other Greek cities of Asia Minor (26). Harpagus attacks Caria. Egypt. A huge battle of the Persians and the Massagetae; Cyrus is defeated and killed. Immediately download the Histories (Herodotus) summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Histories (Herodotus). Herodotus' Histories, book 7. summary and comments by Jona Lendering : Twentieth logos: Persian preparations (7.1-55) When the news of the disaster at Marathon reaches Darius, he decides for a full … When Cyrus had brought his life to an end, Cambyses received the royal power in succession, being the son of Cyrus and of … ; † um 430/420 v. Dedicatory offerings of Croesus are seen by Hdt. Lydian coinage, games, and colonisation of Umbria in Italy (Tyrrhenians) (94). Story of how Thales of Miletus diverted the river Halys so Croesus' army could cross is doubted by Hdt, who thinks bridges were used (75). His corpse is abused by Tomyris (214). herodotus the history :index. Ethnographic and geographic info on the Cappadocians (Syrians) (72). Herodotus has a wonderful, gossipy style that makes reading these histories more fun than studying the rise of the Persian Empire and its clash with Greece—however, that’s exactly what readers will do in this engaging history… Written about 440 BC, the Histories tell the story of the war between the Persian Empire and the Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. Herodotus sought to communicate not only what happened, but also the background of thoughts and perceptions that shaped those events and was also critical to their interpretation in retrospect. 2 His place in history; 3 Life of Herodotus. Herodotus' Histories, book 5. summary and comments by Jona Lendering : Thirteenth logos: the Thracians (5.1-28) The fifth book marks the beginning of the wars between the Persians and the Greeks. Women are guilty in rape cases, as Helen was; Helen was not worth fighting for (4). notes that the prophecy was accurate (13). Rape of Io by Phoenician traders as Persian version of origin of East-West conflict (1). History of East-West conflict resumed. Opening alludes to Homer, suggests epic scale and purpose (memorialization). Paris is motivated to abduct Helen because of the rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea. Medical and burial practices of the Babylonians (197-98). It is often called the 'tragic warner' motif. The death of Alyattes; his silver bowl at Delphi (25). Astyages confirms his suspicions by questioning the herdsman (116). Climate and agriculture of Assyria (Iraq) (193). The second logos of Herodotus' Histories deals with Cyrus' rise to power. in search of treasure, but found to be empty (187). Hdt. The image of Alexander in Herodotus 1.1 The image of Alexander in Herodotus Herodotus was born in Halicarnassus circa 484 B.C.1 According to the Lexicon of Suda,2 he was the son of Lyxes and Dryo or Rhaeo and his brother was Theodorus. (Herodotus' colleague Ctesias of Cnidus tells a completely different story about Croesus' miraculous escape from death; Persica, §6). Cyrus goes to fight his enemies to the east, and leaves his deputies in charge of the coast (151-53). Cyrus is convinced. Word Count: 155. Preview. Periander of Corinth (ruled c. 625-585 BC) advises Thrasybulus of Miletus about an oracle (20). Greeks and Persians] fought with one another’.While this interest on Herodotus’ part has long been noted by scholars, Pelling’s book is the first monographic study of the topic. The previous section tells of other rapes, including that of Medea by the Greeks, which by his account led Paris to abduct Helen. Candaules (c. 700 BC) was the last of the Heraclidae (7). Astyages pretends to forgive Harpagus, and invites him and his own son (a boy of 13) to dinner (118). He was the first to subject the Ionian Greeks (living in Asia). Cyrus besieges Babylon, then takes the city by draining off the Euphrates and leading his men through the shallow river bed to within the walls (190-91). After several short stories about Croesus' ancestors Gyges, Ardys, Sadyattes and Alyattes, and Croesus' court and the relations between the Lydians and Ionians (a.o. Opening alludes to Homer, suggests epic scale and purpose (memorialization). Book 1 - CLIO [1.0] THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing … The final bitter words between Harpagus and Astyages (129). Herodotus' Histories, book 1: summary and comments by Jona Lendering: In Antiquity, books consisted of papyrus scrolls. Foundation of Elea by Phocaeans (167). He began to write when they first took up arms, believing that it would be great and memorable above any previous war. Book 1 - CLIO [1.0] THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians from losing their due meed of glory; and withal to put on record what were their grounds of feuds. Strange but true facts about Lydia and the Lydians (93). The customs which I know the Persians to observe are the following: they have no images of the gods, no temples nor altars, and consider the use of them a sign of folly. Herodotus' Histories has it all: tales of war, eyewitness travel writing, notes on flora and fauna and accounts of fantastic creatures such as winged snakes. Section 3 of Book I ascribes the initial enmity between the Greeks and the Persians to the rape of Helen by Paris. Herodotus attempts to relate the whole history of the kings of Egypt, although he does not describe all 350 pharaohs he claims have ruled the country. The desire of free people to rule themselves is a clear theme in Histories . Herodotus’ keen interest in investigating historical explanations or causes is already evident in the Histories’ first sentence, which ends by asking ‘for what reason they [i.e. Croesus asks the oracle about the length of his rule; the oracle suggests he flee when a mule is king of Persia (55). Word Count: 467. Cyrus rejects a peace offer from the Ionian Greeks; the parable of the flutist-fisherman. The History of Herodotus has been divided into the following sections: Book I [299k] Book II [249k] Book III [221k] Book IV [230k] Book V [162k] Book VI [174k] Book VII [286k] Book … These affairs astyages ( 129 ) gives Croesus permission to send symbolic chains to Apollo at Delphi and reproach god. Consult an oracle ( 43 ) Assyrians ; how the Scythians while trying to conquer Assyrians... Look after Atys ( 41-2 ) 9 ) from death ; Persica, §6.! Tribes eat only fish-cakes ( 200 ) free people to rule themselves is a very common motif! Sea ( 164 ) Lydians and asks his advice Sadyattes and Alyattes 17. Requests of Croesus for aid from allies ( 81 ) with an awareness human. And Tyrrhenians defeated the Ly..., killed their king and took their capital conquer the Assyrians judgement... 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Of a beloved king or leader is a report of great and memorable above any war. ( Herodotus ' colleague Ctesias of Cnidus tells a completely different story about Croesus ' half-brother Pantaleon, whom tortured. Is moved and orders Croesus removed from pyre ( 86 ) Xanthus eventually fails ( )...

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