At Thermopylae, until the path outflanking the Allied position was revealed, the Persians signally failed to adjust their tactics to the situation, although the position was well chosen to limit the Persian options. Moreover, Darius was a usurper, and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule. , The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had supported the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499–494 BC.  Cavalry was provided by the Persians, Bactrians, Medes, Cissians and Saka; most of these probably fought as lightly armed missile cavalry. The name of Xerxes' mother, Darius' former wife, a descendant of Cyrus.  Other early modern scholars estimated that the land forces participating in the invasion at 100,000 soldiers or less, based on the logistical systems available to the Ancients.  As Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally. Doing this violates the spam rules in force in /r/history and reddit in general. An army of 60,000 men had been left there by Xerxes, and the fleet joined with them, building a palisade around the camp to protect the ships. from the mountainous lands of Greece, modern day historians have been granted the ability to piece together the multitude of events that supposedly transpired during the years 480 and 479 BC between the Persian empire and the city-states of the classical Greece (Herodotus). The Persian Empire was still relatively young, and prone to revolts among its subject peoples.  Not all Thebans agreed with this policy, and 400 "loyalist" hoplites joined the Allied force at Thermopylae (at least according to one possible interpretation).  This confederation had the power to send envoys asking for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation.  The outcome prompted the Allies to move to a position nearer the Persian camp, still on high ground. Darius had died in 485 B.C. The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in 492 BCE, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. in, The Achaemenid Empire in South Asia and Recent Excavations in Akra in Northwest Pakistan Peter Magee, Cameron Petrie, Robert Knox, Farid Khan, Ken Thomas, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, "Herodotus: Father of History, Father of Lies", https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.529983, "VDH's Private Papers::History and the Movie "300, Medo-Babylonian conquest of the Assyrian Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece&oldid=993344182, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  However, the Greek position was ideally suited to hoplite warfare, the Persian contingents being forced to attack the phalanx head on. The Persian king Darius first attacked Greece in 490 BC, but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a mainly Athenian force. The figure of 240,000 is derived from 3,000. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.  When the other Allies failed to commit to this, the Athenian fleet probably refused to join the Allied navy in the spring. In any case this project was soon abandoned.  The Allied army however, under the command of the Spartan regent Pausanias, stayed on high ground above Plataea to protect themselves against such tactics. The poet Simonides, who was a near-contemporary, talks of four million; Ctesias gave 800,000 as the total number of the army that assembled in Doriskos. No signup or install needed. We are now at 480 BCE, where Xerxes is going to try to invade Greece by land and by sea, but as we will see, he is also not going to be successful. The route to southern Greece (Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponnesus) would require the army of Xerxes to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae. Herodotus, who has been called the 'Father of History', was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor (then under Persian overlordship). https://www.answers.com/Q/Who_won_the_Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece , At the beginning of the invasion, it is clear that the Persians held most advantages.  The 'elite' contingents of the Persian infantry seem to have been the ethnic Persians, Medians, Cissians and the Saka.  Diodorus  and Lysias independently claim there were 1,200 at Doriskos. Ten years separated Marathon, where the first Persian invasion force was decisively defeated, from Thermopylae, where the sacrifice of a relative few made ultimate victory possible, and Salamis, the greatest sea fight the world had yet known.It was those battles, fought more than two millennia ago, that preserved a way of life and shaped the future of mankind. Key terms and places. Would the Athenians stay and fight, or abandon their city?  These were both feats of exceptional ambition, which would have been beyond any contemporary state. After three days resisting the much larger Persian army of Xerxes I, Greek forces were betrayed by Ephialtes and sent into retreat by their leader, Leonidas, who died during a final stand. On the same day, across the Aegean Sea an Allied navy destroyed the remnants of the Persian navy at the Battle of Mycale. Although this led to the subjugation of Cyclades. 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