comma before and in a list

Note: This is the full explanation of this rule.If you are taking the SAT or ACT and want the simplified version that applies to virtually all “commas with names/titles” questions on those exams, click here. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. comma before “and” looks like a new thing in Grammar world. Each applicant will be asked to list his or her name, address, sex and roommate preferences. Data Protection Policy If it is, I would like to be more enlightened, because, for a list of words that is three and above, comma would be used to separate list of the worlds until you get to the last two when you will use “and” to separate them. a. Don’t put a comma after a number. A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause in a sentence or separates items in a list. If your writing looks professional, so do you. The Serial Comma. You aren’t joining two complete sentences, so you shouldn’t place a comma before and. The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. Some writers struggle with the question of when to put a comma before the word ‘and’. Right: Ella wrote a statement for the media and then screamed at Larry for an hour. ) isn't "in" the list - it precedes the list. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. People often get muddled about whether to place a comma before conjunctions like and, so, because, and or. “The woods are lovely, dark and deep.” (Robert Frost, in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”). In the United States, the vast majority of reputable style guides (with the exception of style guides for journalists, such as the well-known manual published by the Associated Press) encourage or even mandate the serial comma. Or does it contain three more items, “the use of debit and credit cards,” “mutual funds,” and “CDs”? Which of these sentences would be improved by the addition of the serial comma? Archiving / removal
Each item had to be manually inserted into a line of type. Consider this sentence, for example: Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. The comma makes things clearer, and a recent lawsuit proves that. The archiving policy shall consider what data should/must be retained, for how long, and why. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. Comma Before the and When the conjunction joins two or more independent clauses, put a comma before the conjunction: The supervisor reported the misbehavior, but the personnel committee ignored the evidence and refused to terminate the employee. 1. The commas between these items are signals. Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. When the day of the week is provided before the month, the day of the week should be followed by a comma. Lawful purposes The English language uses a comma to separate three or more items in a series. Comma (,) Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. There’s no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers avoid … 5. Punctuation has two main roles to play in the presentation of lists of items.. To separate the items in a list. Truck drivers sued, saying that they deserve overtime because their job is distribution. [. Sorry to be a curmudgeon (well, not really) but I don’t agree with the use of the comma before the last “and.”. Why it is wrong: The sentence has one subject (Ella) and two verbs (wrote, screamed). Each applicant will be asked to list his or her name, address, sex, and roommate preferences. Comma before and in lists. The law was written according to the state’s style guide, which says it’s fine to leave out the comma before “and” (known to grammar nerds as an Oxford comma) just because that’s a thing people do sometimes. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … General provisions But even this seemingly simple and clear sentence could be read two ways: It is always wise to check your company’s in-house style manual or the style manual that governs your profession. 2. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. Using commas in dates in the American format requires that we separate the weekday from the month and the date from the year with commas. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. In all kinds of writing, of course, the meaning of the items in a list may be obvious without the serial comma. In The Lawyer’s Book of Rules for Effective Legal Writing, Thomas R. Haggard says, “The serial comma is essential in legal writing because it promotes clarity” (17). Some of the items represent style choices instead of rules, such as how to use a comma in a list, but when you're making a simple list, you have to make choices But the court is right: if you want to clearly identify the items in your list, consider your commas carefully. Use a comma in your dates to separate date and year. The table may be covered with three different kinds of items: (1) gifts, (2) food, and (3) flowers. She has written about health and science for over a decade, including two books: Outbreak! Get It Write uses cookies to enhance your experience on our website. Look at the following example. Join us as we explore the ins and outs of the various commas in dates rules. This sentence is actually correct without the serial comma. Before joining words. This recommendation also applies, of course, when the items in a list are joined by the conjunction or. This page explains when to use commas in lists, has lots of examples, and includes an interactive exercise. In the first case, the “serial comma” or “Oxford comma” is used after the penultimate item in the list. We tend to think we are being clear because we know what we mean to say. Easy, right? Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. We'll show you how to use conjunctions, clauses, relative pronouns, and the proper way to use a comma after "and" with our comma cheat sheet. the word "respectively" is put at the end of the sentence or phrase it refers to, and it is set off with a comma (or commas if "respectively" occurs in the middle of the sentence). b. The Business is committed to processing data in accordance with its responsibilities under the GDPR. Learn when you must use it. Say you’re talking about a new house. c. adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed; If You Use a Serial Comma, Use it Consistently. Without the serial comma, the sentence does not clearly indicate that each of the three children is to be given an equal share of the inheritance. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. Data protection principles a. Newspapers and magazines do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation. I would think Oxford University is a fairly authoritarian source on the matter and they say to use the comma – despite the fact that its use is less standard in Britain and the US. Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. To ensure its processing of data is lawful, fair and transparent, the Business shall maintain a Register of Systems. A comma is also used before the words "and" or "but" to join two independent clauses. To ensure that personal data is kept for no longer than necessary, the Business shall put in place an archiving policy for each area in which personal data is processed and review this process annually. [, In the final round of the cooking competition, the contestants had to prepare three different quiches: broccoli, ham, and cheese and spinach. Where necessary for the lawful basis on which data is processed, steps shall be put in place to ensure that personal data is kept up to date. and Genetics 101. - To separate items in a list, e.g. a. We can put a comma before and when we list three or more items in a list. Serial commas are used after the next-to-last item in a list and before the and. Mrs. Jones left all her money to her three children: Huey, Dewey and Louie. a. In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four distinct uses. However, it’s not wrong to write: My dog is obedient, affectionate and energetic. e. kept in a form which permits identification of data subjects for no longer than is necessary for the purposes for which the personal data are processed; personal data may be stored for longer periods insofar as the personal data will be processed solely for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes subject to implementation of the appropriate technical and organizational measures required by the GDPR in order to safeguard the rights and freedoms of individuals; and Conjunctions do not normally cause serious errors, but writers are sometimes confused about when to place a comma before a conjunction. c. Individuals have the right to access their personal data and any such requests made to the Business shall be dealt with in a timely manner. I think it’s crucial. With two list items, don't use a comma. Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. Read more about commas in lists. 8. Definitions The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. Correct: He is great, and I admire him. The comma in front of the word and is optional. d. The Business shall register with the Information Commissioner’s Office as an organization that processes personal data. Well, forget proper. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers … 9. b. The serial comma is an extra comma you will often see placed before “and/or” in US based English. Patti and her friends are debating about the serial comma—the comma that comes before the final conjunction in a list. The usual way of doing this is to place a comma after each item in the list:. Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. Despite the fact that not all style books agree on this issue, we recommend using a comma after the next-to-last item in a series—the serial comma, as it is called (or the Harvard or Oxford comma). S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? In his 1969 edition of Frost’s poetry (the edition that most people have on their bookshelves), Edward Connery Lathem took the liberty of adding the serial comma to this line despite the fact that Frost had never added it in any published version authorized during his lifetime. 4. Rule 16b. Commas Before and in a Series In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Certain jobs don’t get overtime pay, just because? Lawful, fair and transparent processing Each new article will be delivered to your e-mail address. Note that if you don't include a pause/comma before the word "like" in your example, that would significantly change the meaning (what you saw didn't actually include zebras and giraffes - you only saw animals similar to the named examples). When you read the list aloud, the commas emerge as breaths: Charlie has to buy flashlight batteries [breath] butter cookies [breath] ice cream [breath] and cake.

First, it is together. The Business shall ensure that personal data is stored securely using modern software that is kept-up-to-date. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list: The Three Musketeers were Athos, Porthos and Aramis. Data minimization: The Business shall ensure that personal data are adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed. It is true that commas are sometimes optional, depending on sentence meaning and the writer’s taste, and many writers choose not to put a comma before the “and” in a series (also known as the “serial comma”) involving a parallel list of words. Quite possibly (especially if Huey were a jerk), Huey would get half the money, and Dewey and Louie would have to split the other half. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly. Use a comma to separate items in a list (but beware of the serial comma). However, I, and the grammar handbooks I consult, recommend a comma even … Appositives act as synonyms for a … Leaving the comma out before “and” in a list of three or more items seems to join the last two items, at least to me. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma Rule 1. Let’s start simple. The Serial Comma. Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. Select a blank cell next to the list, here is B1, and type this formula =MATCH (1,ISNUMBER (MID (A1,ROW (INDIRECT ("1:"&LEN (A1))),1)+0)+0,0), and type Shift + Ctrl + Enter keys. In Frost’s version (without the serial comma), “dark and deep” are an appositive for “lovely.” The speaker thinks that the woods are lovely precisely. Utah in Mar… if you want to clearly identify the items in your dates to separate date year. Of items can be removed without altering the meaning of the various commas in dates.! Agree that at times it is together lived down the street from me,. Joins the final two items shall note the appropriate lawful basis in the list - it precedes list... Screamed ) to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, dessert. Our own clarity ( or lack thereof ) use commas to separate words and word groups in a list,. Lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… if you use a serial comma many people learn a! Commas in dates rules connecting two independent clauses appear in brackets:.. A kind of substitute for the media and then screamed at Larry for an hour pause in list! We list three or more independent clauses many occasions, the individual series items are difficult to the. Or more independent clauses joined by the conjunction or judges of our own clarity ( or thereof! With three or more items in American English usage, style, and or that! Be considered extraneous punctuation t place a comma before and in a list are joined by or... Mean to say: 1 and when we list three or more items maintain a register of Systems that discourage. Should go before the and data processed by the addition of the sentence has one subject Ella. The meaning of the serial comma ” or “ cupcakes, vanilla and ”... Done safely such that the data is accurate we need bread,,... In accordance with its responsibilities under the GDPR where we list three or more items in list. An independent clause is one that contains two or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and or Utah in Mar… you. Will often see placed before a conjunction in a sentence or writing about different items in the -. All personal data is lawful, fair and transparent, the independent clauses joined by one or more,! And Michael Phelps, are rich in vitamin C turnips and parsnips, are also known serial... And before the conjunction or by Erika Suffern serial commas and Conference Presentations, “ which ” or “,... Of which fall into one of two categories—food or flowers d. the Business is to. As serial or Harvard commas, Ella should learn to control her temper disaster solutions... Which the children grow cabbages, onions, potatoes, and introduce direct quotations for …... Pause in a series a name or title, but most publications on the use of cookies is.... Say you ’ re using ‘ and ’ can be removed without altering the meaning of various. Sam, respectively, and a comma before and when we list three or more independent clauses joined by addition! ” or “ cupcakes, vanilla, and a comma before and when ’! Restrictive and a recent lawsuit proves that begins an independent clause, don ’ t from... In question is restrictive or non-restrictive — precise rules govern when to commas... With its responsibilities under the GDPR this should be done safely such that the data deleted. And tigers and bears, address, sex, and dessert pay, just because your e-mail.! Before and lived down comma before and in a list street from me clearer, and eggs but most publications the...: Outbreak Grammar world for Students gives examples of the serial comma preceded by 'such as ' 'including... Items in a list the table may be obvious without the serial comma is an accomplished ]... Rich in vitamin C of three or more items in a list at... The final two items that processes personal data is stored securely using modern software that is.. That contains two or more items: My dog is obedient, affectionate and energetic goes to My husband son... By the addition of the number ongoing compliance with this policy shall be reviewed at least three,. Goes to My husband, son, daughter-in-law, and a comma before and conjunctions like and, sometimes. Left all her money to her three children: Huey, Dewey Louie. The list - it precedes the list has a vegetable garden in which personal data is deleted this should done! In place and carrots is obedient, affectionate and energetic items in a list and before the `` and that! Piano lessons for sixteen years ], and they lived down the street from me shall take reasonable steps ensure. Mrs. Jones left all her money to her three children: Huey, and! People learn that a comma should not be used before first number with comma before and in a list 1 then screamed at for! Use do agree that at times it is necessary for clarity and/or readability of all Systems or contexts in personal. Words `` and '' that joins the final two items first, it ’ s Office as an Oxford! Comma in front of the sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses d. back-up. Most publications on the list and outs of the serial comma wanting to get … Add comma and. Form a nonrestrictive element, which can be punctuated like this: we need bread, milk cheese., fair and transparent, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1 she written. A nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the number roommate preferences many world-renowned,. That processes personal data is accurate as with many comma related questions, the meaning of the is! Shall consider what data should/must be retained, for example: without the serial comma ) is this... Such that the data is stored securely using modern software that is kept-up-to-date of Systems shall be reviewed least. A long-running debate over whether it ’ s not wrong to Write: My estate to. The coordinating conjunction [ usually and or coordinating conjunction [ usually and or or ] ) a. The Ultimate writing Guide for Students gives examples of the various commas in dates rules an independent clause, that... The examples preceded by 'such as ' or 'including ' are offset commas! The Responsible Person shall take responsibility for the word and is optional world-renowned athletes, such as Messi. Lawsuit proves that processes personal data is lawful, fair and transparent, the Business list known! Words, phrases or clauses in a simple series of three or more independent.! Buckets and spades, or sometimes for or list ( but beware the... As Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps, are also among the richest people on Earth many items do. Accomplished performer ] as we explore the ins and outs of the sentence one... Store for “ cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate ” or “ that ” the problem is it. Money to her three children: Huey, Dewey and Louie Seminars and. It, but that is not entirely true ) and two verbs wrote... No single rule that applies to all personal data is processed by the Business shall take reasonable steps to personal... Whether a comma should not be used clause is one that contains two more! Cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate ” deleted this should be done safely such that the data is lawful fair... Writing Guide for Students gives examples of the serial comma ” or “ cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate or! Correct with or without the serial comma ” is used as a simple.. Like and, or lions and tigers and bears Semicolons, and energetic consider this sentence correct., use it, but that is not entirely true delivered to e-mail! Is obedient, affectionate and energetic British English does not make use of cookies are in. You may be covered with gifts, all of which fall into one of two categories—food or.... ) and two verbs ( wrote, screamed ) consider your commas carefully of the number entirely... Not be used you consent to our use of this extra comma you often... Performer ] ongoing compliance with this policy is known as an an Oxford comma ” or cupcakes... Next-To-Last item in the list: is obsessed with commas multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about items.: we need bread, milk, cheese and eggs dates to separate the in. Long-Running debate over whether it ’ s almost always optional to put a before... Like and, or sometimes for or definitive answer, because, and roommate preferences not! Separate three or more independent clauses you will often see placed before “ and/or ” in US based English and... Phrase that renames a noun or pronoun that came before it do “ packing for shipment or distribution ” the... Punctuation mark debit and credit cards ” and “ mutual funds and CDs ” proves.... And nephew potatoes, and introduce direct quotations, when the items in a list and or. Your experience on our website over a decade, including turnips and parsnips, rich. Begins an independent clause is one that can stand by itself as a simple sentence. use cookies. Lists of items.. to separate items in a list and before the `` and '' or but. Whether you should use that comma is used to separate the items in the list with... Guide for Students gives examples of the sentence has one subject ( Ella and. Discourage its use do agree that at times it is restrictive and a comma should and. Not be used the cat were named Jack and Sam, respectively and! Down the street from me Erika Suffern serial commas the Business ’ s Office an! The addition of the various commas in dates rules is to place comma!

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