article about smoking in malaysia

Public Health. Cookies policy. N Engl J Med. The authors postulated that anti-smoking campaigns unintentionally conveyed smoking as a behaviour of those with elevated social status and therefore smoking was more popular among those who were exposed to those advertising campaigns. Tob Control. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate smoking prevalence and multivariable logistic regression to determine the influence of each variable on smoking status while simultaneously controlling for potential confounding effects by other variables. This could be due to the fact that countries with more successful reduction in smoking prevalence quickly adopted the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, while Malaysia has a shorter history of implementing tobacco control measures. However in Malaysia, the CTPR’04 have limited areas where smoking is prohibited. PubMed  2008, 45: 72-89. Malaysia has become the latest ASEAN member state to establish more smoke-free zones; rolling out a divisive smoking ban on 1 January which prohibits smoking in all restaurants, open-air eateries, coffee shops and hawker centres. Hence, amendments were made to the tobacco control regulations 1993 to ban all advertisements of tobacco brands on the non-tobacco product. For types of occupation, respondents were categorised into 10 major groups according to the Department of Statistics standard method of classification, namely, senior officer, professional, technical, clerical, service, skilled agriculture and fisheries, craftsman, plant and machine operator, elementary occupation, and unemployed. In 2004, the Ministry of Health launched a five-year national anti-smoking campaign with the slogan ‘Tak Nak’ (Say No) that reached more than 92% of the population. Emphasis should be on rehabilitation and prevention of smoking instead of punishment as commonly practiced now. Levy DT, Benjakul S, Ross H, Ritthiphakdee B: The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths in a middle income nation: results from the Thailand SimSmoke simulation model. (Accessed on 26 December 2012), enforcement among minor smokers in Maharani Town, Muar, Johor 2010, ITC Mauritius National Report-Result of the Wave 3 Survey. About 20% teenagers smoke. Joossens L, Raw M: The tobacco control scale: a new scale to measure country activity. In Malaysia, the number of smokers has dropped by 1.5 percentage points in 2019 according to the Ministry of Health’s National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019. There are more young people who smoke … As developing countries comprise 73% of the world’s smoker population, these countries will be more adversely affected by the health, economic and social impacts of smoking-related diseases [3–5]. 2003,…/SYED%20ABD%20RAZ. Lim, H.K., Ghazali, S.M., Kee, C.C. 2006, Kuala Lumpur: NCD Risk Factors in Malaysia, Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Malaysia. While Malaysia spends around 3 billion ringgit each year treating smoking-related diseases, smoking rates have remained constant for a decade, at around 25 per cent of the population. A similar pattern was reported by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), which found that in Malaysia the proportion of current smokers was higher among the 25–44 years old age group (54.9%), decreased to 43.8% for 45–64 year olds, and decreased further to 25.3% for respondents 65 years and above [20]. However, in Malaysia retailers are still allowed to display tobacco products, and 32% of Malaysian respondents noticed signs and picture of items with cigarette logos at outlets where tobacco products are sold. Teenage smoking is a severe problem in Malaysia and according to the World Tobacco Marketfile, the number of youth smokers are increasing (See Table 1.2). In accordance with results linking occupation and current smoking status, results from this study showed that Malaysians with low socioeconomic status had greater smoking rates than those with high socioeconomic status. 7 By ethnic distribution, the prevalence of smokers was the highest among the Malays, followed by Indians, then … Identifying target groups of tobacco policy. The moderate decrease in the smoking rate may indicate that tobacco control measures have been at least somewhat effective. Data collection proceeded for four months from April to the end of July, 2006. Article  Helasoja V, Prattala R, Klumbiene J, Petkeviciene J, Kasmel A, Lipand A, Uutela A, Puska P: Smoking and passive smoking in Estonia, Lithuania and Finland. In our analysis, ex-smokers, ever smokers and never smokers were combined and constituted the non-smokers category. 2006, 42: 415-422. Marsh A, McKay S: London. (Accessed on 10 January 2013), Malaysia Spends RM 20 billion to treat tobacco related diseases every year. The majority had received secondary education. Yu Z, Nissinen A, Wartiainen E, Song G, Guo Z, Zheng G, Tuomilehto J, Tian H: Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China. 10.1136/tc.2005.015347. (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011), Syed Abdul Razak SM: Perubahan struktur umur penduduk: Impak dan cabaran pembangunan negara. To reduce the consumption of tobacco product among Malaysians, the Malaysian government has instituted many anti-smoking measures. (Accessed on 5 February 2011), –2010, Global Adult Tobacco Survey: China Country report. Yang GH, Fan LX, Tan J, Qi GM, Zhang YF, Sarnet JM, Taylor CE, Becker K, Xu J: Smoking in China- Finding of the 1996 National Prevalence Survey. Soc Sci Med. PubMed  10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.022. The ratio of Malaysian male to female smokers … 10.1093/aje/153.8.807. The average number of cigarettes smoked by the study respondents was 12.3 cigarettes per day, slightly less than 13.3 cigarettes per day in 1996 (p < 0.01) [16]. Approximately 22.8% of Malaysians smoke. A total of 7,113 out of 15,639 respondents interviewed were current smokers (46.4%, 95%, CI 45.5–47.4). Besides, other measures such as designation of smoke-free areas in 2004 [14], restructuring of tobacco taxes to increase the cost of cigarettes in 2007, anti-smoking campaigns such as “Tak Nak” (“Say No”) from 2004–2011, and provision of smoking cessation services at government health clinics [15] have also been instituted. Regulations prohibiting the sale of tobacco products to minors are in place, but lack of enforcement has resulted in an increase in cigarette purchases by under-aged adolescents in spite of the law [58]. Analyses were performed using STATA version 10 and SPSS version 16. However, the observed association between urban–rural and smoking status was maintained after adjusting for income and education, thereby excluding them as the possible explanation for the difference. However, local and foreign tobacco industries circumvent such control efforts through trademark diversification. Selling of cigarettes to persons under the age of 18 has been forbidden since May 14, 1994. A total of 34,305 respondents aged 18 years and older were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Another possible contributing factor for higher prevalence of smoking in rural areas is targeted marketing by the tobacco industry towards the rural residents [42]. h�b```� ����cb���>�7�����pl����h�����m%SR@j����r���r���^�h;�CI�� ��c>%L�@�m��\�v��8:8�dCCG�� �400J 9@6�H��i3�FI�G@Z �E@N`�b�e��i��Xo�Ŏ6_��g�ީ���_f��à�� x�#Y��`܆�[���T "�p � ��H 84 0 obj <>stream The need and urgency of this issue takes on new meaning with the high prevalence of adolescent smoking in Malaysia, where 1 in 10 adolescents in the 13 to 17-year-old age group are smokers [ 4 ]. Soc Sci Med. 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.08.013. Google ScholarÂ. Potential factors contributing to the association between ethnicity and smoking status are many and deserve further investigation, especially as adjustment for age, socio-economic status and other factors did not remove the effect of ethnicity on smoking status. 1992, 339: 1268-1278. (Accessed on 27 August 2011), His Majesty’s Government Gazette P.U. Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Thailand Country. Public Health. Article  1994, Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, CDC: Vital Signs –Smoking and secondhand smoke. Before each interview started, the interviewer read out the consent form in order to obtain written consent. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Gilmore ABC, McKee M, Telishevska M, Rose R: Epidemiology of smoking in Ukraine. In contrast, prevalence of smoking was lower among high-income earners and professionals in the service or production sectors [16]. Divorced men were found to smoke more than single, married or widowed men. 1997, Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Publish Health, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia: Smoking. The regulation will be fully enforced effective 1 … National Health and Morbidity Survey Volume 17. 2004,…/FP_1_. Data were weighted in the analysis to account for the complex study design and response rate. Using multivariable logistic regression (Table 4), associations were observed between smoking status and level of education, occupation, ethnic group and age. Tob Control. The risk of youth commencing tobacco use by socio-demographic, environmental and personal factors is increasing. A significant association was observed between both monthly household income and education level with current smoking status.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,…/stat/ctums-esutc_2008-eng.php,…/SYED%20ABD%20RAZ,,, However, indirect advertising of cigarette brands in display cabinets may still be found at the check-out counters of sundry shops, food outlets and supermarkets [13]. Before the advent of widespread tobacco use in World War II, lung cancer was rare . Peto R, Boreham J, Lopez AD, Thun M, Health C: Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. Moreover, the country has spent as much as 2.92 billion Malaysian ringgit treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease and lung cancer [8]. Data show that only 36% of Malaysian smokers feel that smoking is a burden on their finances [11] compared to about 49% in Mauritus [59], and 22% of survey respondents [11] think that higher cigarette prices may motivate them to quit smoking. [48] who reported smoking was not related to marital status among adult persons residing in urban areas of China. Treatment of Tobacco smoking and dependence 2002. This heralds a worrying trend in Malaysia since at present more than a quarter of its population is aged 15 and below [35]. (A).324: Food Act 1983. The higher the level of an individual’s education and income, the less likely that individual is to be a current smoker. Effective today, customers caught smoking in eateries can be fined a maximum of RM10,000 or jailed up to two years, while restaurant operators who fail to put up no-smoking … This is consistent with findings reported by Nystedt in 2006 [46], Cho et al. Saeed AA, Khoja TA, Khan SB: Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City. 10.1136/bmj.309.6959.937. Br Med J. Education attainment was categorized into four levels: no formal education, primary education (1–6 years), secondary education (7–12 years), and tertiary education (more than 12 years and enrolled in university). Our study showed that the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia has dropped by only 2.8% between 1996 and 2006. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. PubMed Central  Divorced (1.67, 95% CI 1.22–2.28) and residing in rural areas (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.22) were also associated with a higher likelihood of smoking. Peto R: Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next 40. Among the Malaysians, 71% were Malays. 1994, 309: 937-939. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: We report 95% confidence intervals without P values as the large sample size could generate significant results even if statistical differences or associations were small. 2012, Pamplemousses: Mauritius Institute of Health. The study was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. Schools should have trained personnel who are able to provide smoking cessation counseling to students. As a result, the country seeks to cut the current smoking prevalence into half by year 2020 [9]. The questionnaire was developed by a committee of experts and pre-tested on a sample of respondents living in urban and rural areas of Klang, Bangsar and Sepang. h޴XmS�8�+�x7n�ny��(�5-%P�e�`A|u��v(���]�1����F��Z���yv���31��� �o1N�{� �t�"Ʉ™H���X����f�a�G�n�T�#&��,rL:��L ���L)n�LY3'�r�1�Hs%�˗0��}v��\�k�'�qb?�4�����`P���%�oo�A��8�kN��9\2-2I}6��/������˅�v�����Ź���s����Q��~���ݤ�]@0L���,ɗ���ʗ>��C5O�&E�%%�}9�y �{U�O�뢨}�^Ok�'�(�Wm�L*��������~�O}N~�bU�TS�����C���zZzWŢ����C��B�op��� �EV�8. PubMed  Malaysia smoking rate for 2016 was 21.50%, a 0.3% decline from 2015. A majority began to smoke before the age of 25 (90.1%), 19.7% (95% CI 18.8–20.6) between 13–15 year-old and 33.8% (95% CI 32.7–34.9) between 16–18 year-old. Shapoa L, Gilmorea AB, Cokera R, McKeea M, Shapob E: Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Tirana city, Albania: a population-based survey. BMC Public Health The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. In China, a three-year decrease in the mean age of smoking onset has been reported [30] and taken together with Malaysia, this may represent the success of the multinational tobacco companies which continue to focus their advertisement on the youngsters. Article 8 of FCTC dictates the signatory countries consider total smoking prohibition in all enclosed areas and public places. CYY, TCH, LKK and G were involved in interpretation and implications of the analysis. The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. 10.1136/tc.2007.022319. National Health and Morbidity Survey Volume 17. PubMed Central  Other studies by Huisman et al. (Accessed on 6 February 2012), Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Ferketich AK, Gallus S, Iacobelli N, Zuccaro P, Colombo P, La Vecchia C: Smoking in Italy 2007, with a focus on the young. %PDF-1.6 %���� The total sample size was based on a previous finding of a 10% prevalence rate, margin of error of 1.2 and design effect of 2. Fifty percent of smokers die of a smoking-related disease, and the life expectancy of one in four smokers is reduced by as much as 15-20 years . While it is unclear if this can be attributed to a switch to vaping, the same report shows five per cent of Malaysians use vaping products. World Bank: Curbing the epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control. By using this website, you agree to our Following are the places where smoking is prohibited under Regulation 11(1) of CTPR’04: Respondents were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design and surveyed between January 2005 and March 2005. In this paper, we analyzed data from NHMS III in 2006 to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with tobacco use among Malaysian men ten years after the previous survey. Privacy This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Similar proportions have been observed in the previous NHMS surveys [16]. Public health policies and action need to focus on high risk sub-populations identified through this survey, principally younger, rural, Malay males from a lower income group, and with less formal education. Report Nystadt P: Marital life course events and smoking behaviour in Sweden 1980–2000. 2005, 40: 756-764. The sample selection method has been described in more detail in the NHMS III official report [17]. The percentage of smokers working indoors who refrained from smoking at work increased from 33.6% in 2005 to 64.4% in 2009 [11]. California Tobacco Control Program Web site. Continuous and more comprehensive anti-smoking policy measures are needed in order to further prevent the increasing prevalence of smoking among Malaysian men, particularly those who are younger, of Malay ethnicity, less educated, reside in rural residential area and with lower socio-economic status. Compared to neighboring countries, this average number of cigarettes is more than the 11.3 cigarettes per day reported by the Philippines [27] yet lower than 13.5 and 14.3 cigarettes per day reported in Vietnam [24] and China [36], respectively. Tobacco smoking is a growing pandemic and in Malaysia, with the current smoking epidemic; the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia is high and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in … 2009, Available at, . 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.10.010. Moreover, married people tend to have more economic advantages, and receive more social and psychological support which can make quitting smoking more likely. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. So rare, in fact, that doctors were required to report cases of lung cancer to the federal government to help identify the local environmental cause of the condition among an affected population, much like reporting cases of mesothelioma today. Respondents were overwhelmingly of Thai ethnicity ( 98 % ) never smokers were between 21–40 years age... Nam’S country Reports 2002 to 2030 highest among the Malays ( 55.9 )! Should have trained personnel who are able to provide smoking cessation: Bringing aspiration into reality such control through. Distribution of the Malays and other professional occupations broader impacts of the pictorial warning on smoking prevalence into by. 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