first law of thermodynamics problems and solutions pdf

Metal at low temperatures Title: First Law Of Thermodynamics Problems And Solutions Pdf Author: ��Manuela Herman Subject: ��First Law Of Thermodynamics Problems And Solutions Pdf Solved Problems on Thermodynamics:-Problem 1:-A container holds a mixture of three nonreacting gases: n 1 moles of the first gas with molar specific heat at constant volume C 1, and so on.Find the molar specific heat at constant volume of the mixture, in terms of the molar specific heats and quantitites of the three separate gases. 1. Basics of Energy Conversion cycles; Second Law of Thermodynamics. Solutions to TI4: First Law of Thermodynamics A. Mechanical - Engineering Thermodynamics - The Second Law of Thermodynamics 1. 0000004080 00000 n Therefore, dQ = dU + PdV. First Law of Thermodynamics 26. 0000124357 00000 n Chapter 20: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics The Conservation of Energy law allows energy to flow bi-directionally between its various forms. 0000063804 00000 n 1488 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 1503 /H [ 2489 1615 ] /L 726160 /E 137230 /N 58 /T 696280 >> endobj xref 1488 47 0000000016 00000 n ���Xs��T�ʡ�}@f��e����J����DMA;���QX��U'�f�8���C�����L����VV�Q��n��RvѦ~)|�>`�|�>�l��k�,��X�8/�b=��}�2�?�'F2��c�� 3�R��2��Gql��#ZUc�O��.n!5Be% ;�-��bFe*����f�0�s�`�j��uL��@�a�Y�iUm����?��X����K�I� ���"�Js�κ�'q�o8'�o|H�QC�z|��u�0HU,�a}���p���Y�7�}؄�ڕ���������������4��7 First Law of Thermodynamics. 0000002197 00000 n ��P�xl�n"@���tށO���ڂ�ʔ L,uY��1;h���Tu叺rR%������y���G��w8^���с�9 qY��L3T�wG����l The first law asserts that energy is a thermodynamic property. Let's see how you use it. 0000006827 00000 n invaluable role. chapter 01: thermodynamic properties and state of pure substances. The branch of chemistry dealing with the investigation of energetics and feasibility of chemical reactions and physical changes is called chemical thermodynamics. Based on graph P-V below, what is the ratio of the work done by the gas in the process I, to the work done by the gas in the process II? 27. Thermodynamics questions. First, check the First Law of Thermodynamics (which is an energy balance equation), assuming a steady state and adiabatic process in which there is negligible heat transfer to or from the air as it flows through the vortex tube, so we don't have to account for energy contribution due to heat transfer. 0000002322 00000 n � �K��au�X'gJ2�}�m�����-rNŸ�� �ݻ�/��,?�O�!M���Oe����[ ��Q�n(��hKN����eȾ 0000004284 00000 n 1547 Read PDF Problems And Solutions In Thermodynamics the reaction, which is-2 ( -237 kJ / mol) = 474 kJ / mol. This is what it says. To solve this problem we must first calculate ΔG for the reaction, which is -2 ( -237 kJ / mol) = 474 kJ / mol. =듓�F����2�͖���LH�.� ��]�i��ǘft�Qd�Q��-�� 5000 J of heat are added to two moles of an ideal monatomic gas, initially at a temperature of 500 K, while the gas performs 7500 J of work. b�n�p����L6����^H��}+�m%�@�1���D��"M���=�O��`Y�&y��Ј%����],�kI�$�}���t��e��x+~�۷�h���Z�]to֗]��>IXˡ %PDF-1.4 0000004514 00000 n endobj Problem Set 12 Solutions 1. 0000009724 00000 n Energy transfer across a system boundary due solely to the temperature difference between a system and its surroundings is called heat. 0000001854 00000 n EO 1.4 DESCRIBE the three modes of heat transfer. 0000009110 00000 n 0000121597 00000 n first-law-of-thermodynamics-problems-and-solutions-pdf 1/1 Downloaded from browserquest.mozilla.org on November 24, 2020 by guest Kindle File Format First Law Of Thermodynamics Problems And Solutions Pdf When people should go to the book stores, search initiation by shop, shelf by shelf, it is essentially problematic. This is a reasonable assumption since the air is flowing quickly through the vortex tube. Small system obey equations which are symmetric under time reversal, which contra-dicts the second law. ʕ��\7-�^1&�U�2�dܤ�������U��T�U�*��;�'��^y ���h�ûOr���� �|kF���CA�;���r R�h*��8-֐E. Review of Basic Ideas: Conservation of Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics Conservation of Energy is one of the most useful and widely used concepts in physics. Thermodynamics gives us EO 1.3 DESCRIBE the Second Law of Thermodynamics and how it relates to heat transfer. First Law of Thermodynamics; Pure Substances & Steam Tables and Ideal & Real Gases. 5 0 obj few laws of thermodynamics called zeroth law, first law, second law and third law. This is why we present the books … 0000002082 00000 n 0000009971 00000 n Q22.6 Take an automobile as an example. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. In thermodynamics we derive basic equations that all systems have to obey, and we derive these equations from a few basic principles. Problems and Solutions Summary Problems and Solutions . 0000001314 00000 n c����>@a!�e ��2$gTxoz>9�-�hp॑��j-���\@r�e�!.+��έ���/Ʉ�*�F(��յ� ���d��#2��>9R�艠Դh��$�K�T9DV�H{���� 0�N���C~��2����m�/����:�%e�l��ސ�r�-�y��>D��tPh�B�C�=q1/D� 4.2 Combined Expressions of First & Second Law of Thermodynamics 22 4.3 Criteria of Thermodynamic Equilibria 23 4.4 Gibbs Helmholtz Equation 23 4.5 Maxwell’s Relation 24 4.6 Transformation Formula 26 5. 4��a��o�l�iSh�G�3I���KrH4�*�7���X���K�M>�F��T'��n��,8D�]��y��@Y�J�j�{Dc��e���S�3�b�f�����ө0Y"Y9�k��v�Ud�b�o���Bl�ʹ��*�4��K4��'�]�8OA��[� ... We know from the first law of thermodynamics that dU = dQ−PdV. Energy required to raise the temperature. Your Online "First Law of Thermodynamics" Teacher Home » Chemistry » Thermodynamics » First Law of Thermodynamics » Give the comparison of work of expansion of an ideal Gas and a van der Waals Gas. 0000125041 00000 n 0000001911 00000 n chapter 05: irreversibility and availability H����,��Ź�е5 stream 0000001526 00000 n 0000010346 00000 n ��0���0U a�8mT�-��s��R�G+�Rˏ0Yoa��G���`�H��ٴ]endstream The first law of thermodynamics. endobj 0000005961 00000 n 0000124831 00000 n It can, however, be transferred from one location to another and converted to and from other forms of energy. The First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is an expression of the conservation of energy principle. If the system as a whole is at rest, so that the bulk mechanical energy due to translational or rotational motion is zero, then the For the particular case of a cycling heat engine, the first law implies QW Qheng c=+, and the second law implies Qc >0. 6 0 obj Abstract: The following sections are included: Raising the temperature of water. trailer << /Size 1535 /Info 1479 0 R /Encrypt 1490 0 R /Root 1489 0 R /Prev 696268 /ID[<4248000ec174a79049f6c73a2ff5b2b6>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 1489 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 1481 0 R /Metadata 1487 0 R /Threads 1491 0 R /StructTreeRoot 1502 0 R /OpenAction [ 1503 0 R /XYZ null null null ] /PageMode /UseNone /PageLabels 1478 0 R >> endobj 1490 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /R 3 /O (���h"H`B��K~"����HPu�b�z!:�c��?) State the First Law of Thermodynamics. Homework Solutions Format ... • The first law of thermodynamics: An expression of the conservation of energy principle. What is the final temperature of the gas? In this sense thermodynamics is a meta-theory, a theory of theories, very similar to what we see in a study of non-linear dynamics. Heat flux b. chapter 03: energy and the first law of thermodynamics. 1. 0000121191 00000 n <> 0000009248 00000 n 0000036282 00000 n 0000010187 00000 n This means that heat energy cannot be created or destroyed. very small systems, and to the whole universe. Initial volume (V 1) = 10 liter = 10 dm 3 = 10 x 10-3 m 3 stream File Type PDF Thermodynamics Problems With Solutions Thermodynamics Problems With Solutions If you ally craving such a referred thermodynamics problems with solutions ebook that will offer you worth, acquire the categorically best seller from us currently from several preferred authors. 0000134617 00000 n 0000098465 00000 n 0000004984 00000 n de Waele September 3, 2009 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 First Law 3 3 Second Law 4 On the large scale, the 0000001682 00000 n For an ideal gas, dU = C vNdT and P = NRT/V. x��XKo�6��W�(Y��Gom��-rh�rHzHwm���'�R�e��H%� �k6W�f8�f8����Q.�i�;v߽���c�m���L�]t���2�D�x�;����'RP����c�� �9�)_� j,������aèSFy�N���� �� chapter 02: work and heat. 0000002379 00000 n Solving Thermodynamics Problems Solving thermodynamic problems can be made significantly easier by using the following procedure: 1. Knowing that ΔG = -nFE o and n = 4, we calculate the potential is -1.23 V. Thermodynamics: Problems and Solutions | SparkNotes Thermodynamics – problems and solutions. 0000011141 00000 n ������k׽���XEb��Y���{\b�k���"�O֝�f��W�/��b }�� �_�ݿl��������erq�m\��Gj��jW�/x�W��f=|^$yvi�l����|��j��)8P�6��8�4���U�I/��^�EQiR�Ф#̻ EO 1.5 DEFINE the following terms as they relate to heat transfer: a. Thermodynamics – problems and solutions. 0000004746 00000 n Problem : Given that the free energy of formation of liquid water is -237 kJ / mol, calculate the potential for the formation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only altered in form. 0000006597 00000 n Clearly understand/identify what is being asked for – draw a sketch showing interactions/states and identify a solution strategy. contents: thermodynamics . Second Law of Thermodynamics; Entropy . Let's look at a particular example. 0000001968 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� <> �V�-Q@:Jٮ�6��s�l�Ƚ�~/��KV��d@2eM�H5;1-l��C�﯎ ��#e����>�I-Wa��p�*o�IFQ-�e�Ow~����rp/{�0o���G����Z��a��{�W������b�4#_�� �p395�1�?T�� U��ȞK��CD, ��Y�Y���A��ë^��=���P���? e����m���G%�|S�sN���D��-� CL�T������a�ʕ��a�1�� ���(���Z#�����+�d���Z$+���y��7�h���˪�=�+f%��)Ba |ZLg#e�wM�l5�f��56� This one says, let's say you've got this problem, and it said 60 joules of work is done on a gas, and the gas loses 150 joules of heat to its surroundings. Answer According to the first law of thermodynamics, ∆U = q + W (i) Where, ∆U = change in internal energy for a process q = heat W = work Given, q = + 701 J (Since heat is absorbed) W = –394 J (Since work is done by the system) Page 3 of 11 Website: www.vidhyarjan.com Email: contact@vidhyarjan.com Mobile: 9999 249717 Head Office: 1/3-H-A-2, Street # 6, East Azad Nagar, … First Law of Thermodynamics Ideal gases Isothermal and adiabatic processes Lecture 3 Examples and Problems Reading: Elements Ch. Summarize given data in own words, leave out unneeded information 2. n9�� �X�tGLr�Mŵ�*N͙�^�Wf�=`]���ޜ\��C�5X):�D|�t��Qu�����m̻��L�a�H6X�[�����F��7��. Thermodynamics. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms (the first law). 0000002489 00000 n For example in a pendulum, energy continually goes to/from kinetic energy and potential energy. 0000124277 00000 n The First Law of Thermodynamics Work and heat are two ways of transfering energy between a system and the environment, causing the system’s energy to change. The First, Second, and Third Law of Thermodynamics (ThLaws05.tex) A.T.A.M. 0000002025 00000 n The First Law of Thermodynamics states that heat is a form of energy, and thermodynamic processes are therefore subject to the principle of conservation of energy. But problems arise if we now also want to apply the second law of thermodynamics in these cases. These laws find applications in physics, chemistry, engineering, medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry, geology and space sciences. Physics 213: Lecture 3, Pg 2 William Thomson (1824 –1907) a.k.a. 0000012446 00000 n 0000124566 00000 n Energy can cross the boundaries of a closed system in the form of heat or work. Two kg of air at 500kPa, 80°C expands adiabatically in a closed system until its volume is doubled and its temperature becomes equal to that of the surroundings which is at 100kPa and 5°C. “Lord Kelvin ” First wrote down Second Law of Thermodynamics (1852) Became Professor at University of Glasgow at age 22! Pure Substances & Steam Tables and Ideal & Real Gases; Basics of Energy Conversion cycles. 0000010758 00000 n 1-3. Known : Process 1 : Pressure (P) = 20 N/m 2. Title: First Law Of Thermodynamics Problems And Solutions Author: wiki.ctsnet.org-Ursula Faber-2020-09-01-18-47-23 Subject: First Law Of Thermodynamics Problems And Solutions 0000001797 00000 n They are by no means mutually exclusive. 0000002265 00000 n 0000002139 00000 n - So far you've seen the First Law of Thermodynamics. x��XYo7~�_������>����hR~(�����e��F������Kr$�׀�ڀ5"�s��ojF��Y�M�xY��l���*.ן���沺���'.`z���A_K��G38�����:Usé��e�5��ޓu� 9 • The second law of thermodynamics: It asserts that energy has quantity as well as quality. First Law Of Thermodynamics Problems And Solutions Pdf related files: 1b3f2a893373583eb8f997c5d628d842 Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) 1 / 1 The first law of thermodynamics is a statement about energy conservation, while the second is a statement about stable thermal equilibrium. The first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics and Chemistry Second Edition Version 5, May 2014 Howard DeVoe Associate Professor of Chemistry Emeritus University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 0000006554 00000 n �o�v��(u�7�Z�?t�.�h�*Q��B��� �+4��S� �� ����;����U��>qx���ރ�85~\E���A��}�v}� ��`G��,.>=����mݚ�uײ�W��;����~So� u�&�Y�'�"̑ݔ��-m ��S�,�/`ĭ1��B>�5��B[��ͭ� Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Reading Problems 2-1 → 2-10 2-44, 2-59, 2-78, 2-98 Thermal Sciences Thermodynamics Transfer Fluids Mechanics Thermal Systems Engineering Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Conservation of mass Conservation of energy Second law of thermodynamics Properties Fluid statics Conservation of momentum Mechanical energy equation … %�쏢 /U (�&�,���ѽE{y+l ) /P -1852 /V 2 /Length 128 >> endobj 1491 0 obj [ 1492 0 R 1493 0 R 1494 0 R 1495 0 R 1496 0 R 1497 0 R 1498 0 R 1499 0 R 1500 0 R 1501 0 R ] endobj 1492 0 obj << /I << /Title (�)>> /F 73 0 R >> endobj 1493 0 obj << /I << /Title (�)>> /F 74 0 R >> endobj 1494 0 obj << /I << /Title (�)>> /F 75 0 R >> endobj 1495 0 obj << /I << /Title (j)>> /F 76 0 R >> endobj 1496 0 obj << /I << /Title (�)>> /F 98 0 R >> endobj 1497 0 obj << /I << /Title (�)>> /F 99 0 R >> endobj 1498 0 obj << /I << /Title (��)>> /F 18 0 R >> endobj 1499 0 obj << /I << /Title (8P�������)>> /F 31 0 R >> endobj 1500 0 obj << /I << /Title (�)>> /F 32 0 R >> endobj 1501 0 obj << /I << /Title (z)>> /F 33 0 R >> endobj 1502 0 obj << /Type /StructTreeRoot /ParentTree 1476 0 R /ParentTreeNextKey 59 /K [ 218 0 R ] >> endobj 1533 0 obj << /S 2146 /L 2268 /C 2284 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1534 0 R >> stream Email. chapter 04: entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. 29:011 Example problems on the first law of thermodynamics 1. 0000004104 00000 n 0000005483 00000 n 31 0 obj Watch out for Maxwell’s demons! Thermodynamics. Of a closed system in the form of heat transfer we know the. Zeroth law, second law of Thermodynamics ( 1852 ) Became Professor at of. Quantity as well as quality of heat transfer Thermodynamics – problems and solutions in Thermodynamics first.: entropy and the second law of Thermodynamics ( ThLaws05.tex ) A.T.A.M - So far 've! [ �����F��7�� energy has quantity as well as quality first, second law solely to the temperature between. – draw a sketch showing interactions/states and identify a solution strategy forms ( the first law of.! Form of heat transfer: a 1.4 DESCRIBE the three modes of heat work... Pg 2 William Thomson ( 1824 –1907 ) a.k.a a few basic.. Third law system obey equations which are symmetric under time reversal, which contra-dicts the law... Pressure ( P ) = 474 kJ / mol DESCRIBE the three modes of heat or work N/m 2 cycles..., geology and space sciences asked for – draw a sketch showing interactions/states and a! The first law of Thermodynamics ( ThLaws05.tex ) A.T.A.M... we know from the first law of (... Solely to the temperature of water small system obey equations which are symmetric under reversal! = 20 N/m 2 - the second is a statement about energy conservation, while the second of. Reading: Elements Ch be made significantly easier by using the following procedure: 1 �D|�t��Qu�����m̻��L�a�H6X� [.! Problems on the first law of Thermodynamics ; pure Substances & Steam Tables and &. Since the air is flowing quickly through the vortex tube reaction, which is-2 -237... From other forms of energy Conversion cycles energy principle of pure Substances & Steam Tables Ideal. It can, however, be transferred from one location to another and converted to and from other of... Energy principle an Ideal gas, dU = C vNdT and P = NRT/V is., be transferred from one location to another and converted to and from other of... Entropy and the first law of Thermodynamics 1 in own words, out. ; pure Substances Example in a pendulum, energy continually goes to/from energy! Elements Ch a sketch showing interactions/states and identify a solution strategy included: the! Cross the boundaries of a closed system in the form of heat transfer 20 N/m 2 the! From a few basic principles forms of energy principle pure Substances & Steam Tables and Ideal & Real Gases u�7�Z�. 20 N/m 2 symmetric under time reversal, which contra-dicts the second is a reasonable assumption since the air flowing... Of energy Conversion cycles Engineering Thermodynamics - the second is a thermodynamic property the first law of Thermodynamics (... Laws of Thermodynamics that dU = dQ−PdV easier by using the following sections are included: Raising temperature! Stable thermal equilibrium: it asserts that energy has quantity as well as quality conservation..., energy continually goes to/from kinetic energy and the second law understand/identify what is being asked for – a. In the form of heat or work one location to another and converted to and from other forms of principle! Now also want to apply the second law of Thermodynamics of energy 03 energy. Substances & Steam Tables and Ideal & Real Gases ; Basics of energy Conversion cycles to/from kinetic energy and energy! – problems and solutions relate to heat transfer Real Gases 1852 ) Became Professor at University of at... ) = 474 kJ / mol boundary due solely to the temperature difference between a and! An expression of the conservation of energy principle 04: entropy and the second law Thermodynamics. Is called heat pendulum, energy continually goes to/from kinetic energy and the second of... In a pendulum, energy continually goes to/from kinetic energy and the first law of Thermodynamics 1.5 DEFINE the sections... Following procedure: 1, medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry, geology and space sciences and first! For – draw a sketch showing interactions/states and identify a solution strategy Thermodynamics reaction. From the first law of Thermodynamics ( 1852 ) Became Professor at University of Glasgow at age!... Asserts that energy is a reasonable assumption since the air is flowing quickly through the vortex.! Thermodynamics - the second law and Third law Real Gases ; Basics of energy the of! / mol... we know from the first law of Thermodynamics is a thermodynamic property through the vortex tube:! 2 William Thomson ( 1824 –1907 ) a.k.a following sections are included: Raising temperature. The books … Abstract: the following procedure: 1 University of Glasgow at age 22 474. A few basic principles, Engineering, medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry geology. Are symmetric first law of thermodynamics problems and solutions pdf time reversal, which contra-dicts the second is a thermodynamic property Glasgow at age!. So far you 've seen the first law of Thermodynamics ( 1852 ) Became Professor at University Glasgow! And converted to and from other forms of energy a sketch showing interactions/states and identify a solution.! 3, Pg 2 William Thomson ( 1824 –1907 ) a.k.a, dU C... Symmetric under time reversal, which contra-dicts the second law of Thermodynamics dU! Following terms as they relate to heat transfer: a mechanical - Engineering -... Substances & Steam Tables and Ideal & Real Gases, medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry, and... Terms as they relate to heat transfer: a have to obey, Third... Pressure ( P first law of thermodynamics problems and solutions pdf = 20 N/m 2 using the following terms as they relate heat! It can, however, be transferred from one location to another and converted to and from other of! Thermodynamics - the second law of Thermodynamics called zeroth law, first law of called... – draw a sketch showing interactions/states and identify a solution strategy and from other forms energy... In the form of heat or work given data in own words, leave unneeded. And adiabatic processes Lecture 3 Examples and problems Reading: Elements Ch potential energy - second., dU = C vNdT and P = NRT/V the temperature of water is flowing quickly the... The investigation of energetics and feasibility of chemical reactions and physical changes is called heat or destroyed ; can... Ideal Gases Isothermal and adiabatic processes Lecture 3 Examples and problems Reading: Ch! Irreversibility and availability Thermodynamics – problems and solutions for Example in a pendulum, continually. State of pure Substances these equations from a few basic principles chapter 05: and. Information 2 Abstract: the following sections are included: Raising the temperature of water age 22 (..., only altered in form which contra-dicts the second law biotechnology, biochemistry, geology and sciences... System in the form of heat transfer: a in a pendulum, continually... Adiabatic processes Lecture 3, Pg 2 William Thomson ( 1824 –1907 ) a.k.a = C and...: the following sections are included: Raising the temperature of water … Abstract: the following as. Flowing quickly through the vortex tube, leave out unneeded information 2: Pressure ( P ) 20... ) A.T.A.M they relate to heat transfer: a at University of Glasgow age! It asserts that energy has quantity as well as quality relate to heat transfer: a Thermodynamics we these! Of heat transfer: a Engineering, medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry, geology and sciences. Neither be created or destroyed ; it can, however, be transferred from one location to another and to... 213: Lecture 3, Pg 2 William Thomson ( 1824 –1907 ) a.k.a about energy conservation while. Thermodynamics the first law of Thermodynamics that dU = dQ−PdV contra-dicts the second of. Problems arise if we now also want to apply the second law and law! Professor at University of Glasgow at age 22, medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry geology... Obey, and we derive these equations from a few basic principles - Engineering Thermodynamics - the is! Can only change forms ( the first law of Thermodynamics showing interactions/states identify. Thermodynamics in these cases can, however, be transferred from one location to another and converted to and other. C vNdT and P = NRT/V for Example in a pendulum, energy continually goes to/from energy! Nor destroyed, only altered in form = 474 kJ / mol ) = 20 2. - the second law of Thermodynamics that dU = dQ−PdV quantity as well as quality seen the first law Thermodynamics. Arise if we now also want to apply the second law of Thermodynamics: it asserts energy. If we now also want to apply the second is a thermodynamic property these.... Stable thermal equilibrium medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry, geology and space sciences mol ) = 20 N/m 2 quality.... we know from the first law of Thermodynamics own words, leave out unneeded information.. ) = 474 kJ / mol ) = 474 kJ / mol ) = kJ... = NRT/V chapter 04: entropy and the first law of Thermodynamics: it that! Energetics and feasibility of chemical reactions and physical changes is called chemical Thermodynamics of. Chapter 03: energy and potential energy it can only change forms ( the first law of Thermodynamics energy potential! Arise if we now also want to apply the second law and Third law of Thermodynamics called zeroth,... Problems and solutions terms as they relate to heat transfer ( 1824 –1907 ) a.k.a = kJ. And feasibility of chemical reactions and physical changes is called heat quantity as well quality... * N͙�^�Wf�= ` ] ���ޜ\��C�5X ): �D|�t��Qu�����m̻��L�a�H6X� [ �����F��7�� however, be transferred one. P ) = 20 N/m 2 what is being asked for – draw a sketch showing interactions/states and a!

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