The ash deposits from the eruption are visible to this day, and several archeological sites are preserved under them. Four centuries ago, a Peruvian volcano blew its top – and the whole world may have felt it, a new study suggests. In Russia, 1601-1603 brought the worst famine in the country's history, leading to the overthrow of the reigning tsar. , The 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina occurred at the tail end of a cluster of mid-sized volcanic eruptions, which in a climate simulation had a noticeable impact on Earth's energy balance and were accompanied by a 10% growth of Northern Hemisphere sea ice and a weakening of the subpolar gyre. Urb.  A change in the composition of the erupted rocks occurred, with the "Dacite 1" geochemical suite being increasingly modified by the "Dacite 2" geochemical suite that became dominant during the third stage.  Arctic sea ice expansion and climatic cooling has been noted after these eruptions, and a cooling peak occurred around the time of the Huaynaputina eruption.  The tzar Boris Godunov was overthrown in part owing to the social impacts of the famine, and the time of social unrest known as the Time of Troubles began.  Investigations in 2010 gave temperatures of 51.8–78.7 °C (125.2–173.7 °F) for the gases, with seasonal variations. , The oceanic Nazca tectonic plate is subducting at a rate of 10.3 centimetres per year (4.1 in/year) beneath the continental part of the South American tectonic plate; this process is responsible for volcanic activity and the uplift of the Andes mountains and Altiplano plateau. Based on historical records, Huaynaputina's eruption commenced on 16 February 1600 (following earthquakes that began on the 15th), with the earliest signs of the impending eruption perhaps in December 1599. Southern Peru, Western Bolivia and Northern Chile). Precipitation averages 154.8 millimetres per year (6.09 in/year), falling mainly during a summer wet season between December and March. Huaynaputina (whose name means "new volcano") is a relatively inconspicuous volcano that was the source of the largest historical eruption of South America in 1600 CE.  Ubinas is a typical stratovolcano while Ticsani resembles Huaynaputina in structure.  Additionally, part of the northern flank of the amphitheatre collapsed during the eruption, with some of the debris falling into the Río Tambo canyon.  The deposition of the tephra was influenced by topography and wind changes during the eruption, which led to changes in the fallout pattern. , Damage to infrastructure and economic resources of southern Peru was severe. "Volcanic Eruption Of 1600 Caused Global Disruption." , Huaynaputina is in the Omate and Quinistaquillas Districts, which is part of the General Sánchez Cerro Province in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru. It has no prominent topographic expression and lies within a 2.5-km-wide depression formed by edifice collapse and further excavated by glaciers within an older edifice of Tertiary-to-Pleistocene age.  The first Plinian event lasted for about 20 hours and formed 18–23-metre-thick (59–75 ft) pumice deposits close to the vent. The eruption began with tremendous explosions, the sky grew dark and white ash fell over the countryside.  1601 was called a "green year" in Sweden and a "straw year" or "year of extensive frosts" in Finland.  In 1601–1603 the eruption led to a famine after crops failed in 1601 and 1602; this is considered to be the worst famine of Russian history and claimed about two million lives, a third of the country's population. (2008, April 25). The Peruvian Geophysical Institute announced in 2017 that Huaynaputina would be monitored by the Southern Volcanological Observatory.  Petrological data usually yield a higher sulfur output than ice core data; this may reflect either ice cores underestimating the amount of sulfur erupted as ice cores only record stratospheric sulfur, ice cores underestimating the amount of sulfur for other reasons or overestimating the amount of sulfur contained within magma-associated fluids.  Once the magma reached the surface, the eruption quickly became intense. It has no prominent topographic expression and lies within a 2.5-km-wide depression formed by edifice collapse and further excavated by glaciers within an older edifice of Tertiary-to-Pleistocene age.  Before the eruption the Moquegua region had been a source of good wine, and afterwards the focus of viticulture shifted to Pisco, Ica and Nazca; later sugarcane became an important crop in Moquegua valley.  Notably, the climate impacts became manifest only in 1601; perhaps in 1600 they were suppressed by a strong El Niño event..  Deposits from the 1600 eruption and previous events also crop out within the amphitheatre walls.  The volcano El Misti was sometimes confused with and thus referred to mistakenly as Huaynaputina. It wiped out vegetation, buried the surrounding area with 2 metres (6.6 ft) of volcanic rock and damaged infrastructure and economic resources. The duration of the eruption is not well constrained but may have lasted up to 12-19 hours.  The summer of 1601 was among the coldest in the northern hemisphere during the last six centuries, and the impact may have been comparable to that of the 1815 Tambora, 1453 Kuwae, 1257 Samalas and 536 Ilopango eruptions.  Jesuits interpreted this as a deception attempt by the devil. Most of these pyroclastic flows accumulated in valleys radiating away from Huaynaputina, the flows reaching distances of 13 km (8 mi) from the vents.  These vents lie at an elevation of about 4,200 m (13,800 ft), making them among the highest vents of a Plinian eruption in the world.  Ash falls, pumice falls and pyroclastic flows incinerated everything within their path and buried the surroundings beneath more than 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) of rocks, wiping out vegetation over a large area. The eruption started on February 19, 1600 AD, and lasted until March [ 32 – 34, 37 ].  Some indigenous people organized their own rituals which included feasting on whatever food and drink they had and battering dogs that were hanged alive. The eruption is known to have put a large amount of sulfur into the atmosphere, and tree ring studies show that 1601 was a cold year, but no one had looked at the agricultural and social impacts, said Ken Verosub, professor of geology at UC Davis. Huaynaputina volcano (its name meaning "new volcano") is a small volcano located in southern Peru 26 km south of Ubinas volcano. , Hot springs occur in the region and some of these have been associated with Huaynaputina; these include Candagua and Palcamayo northeast, Agua Blanca and Cerro Reventado southeast from the volcano on the Río Tambo and Ullucan almost due west. The climate disruption caused social upheaval in countries as far away as Russia and may have played a role in the onset of the Little Ice Age. Huaynaputina is a strato-volcano situated in the Andes range in the south of Peru and is part of the infamous Pacific Ring of Fire. Its impact on the region was severe.  Such prophecies may reflect prior knowledge about the volcanic nature of Huaynaputina.  The scale of the eruption and of its climate impact have been determined thanks to information from historical records, tree ring data, the position of glaciers, the thickness of speleothems and ice, plant flowering times, wine harvests and coral growth. Its name translates as ‘new volcano’ and this huge, irregular crater, 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in diameter, has been formed over time from stratified layers of lava and other deposits. , The total volume of tephra erupted by Huaynaputina was about 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi), in the form of dacitic tephra, pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surges, although smaller estimates have been proposed as well.  Various estimates have been made for the dense rock equivalent of the Huaynaputina eruption, ranging between 4.6 and 11 km3 (1.1 and 2.6 cu mi), with a 2019 estimate that accounts for far-flung tephra of 13–14 km3 (3.1–3.4 cu mi).  Ash fall, debris flows and pyroclastic flows devastated an area of about 40 by 70 kilometres (25 mi × 43 mi) around Huaynaputina, and both crops and livestock sustained severe damage. , Unusually narrow or entirely missing tree rings formed in 1601 in trees close to Khövsgöl Nuur lake, and tree ring records show decreased temperatures in Taiwan. It was the site of the largest historical eruption in South America, which occurred in 1600 and erupted an estimated 30 cubic km of dacitic tephra, including ash fall and pyroclastic flow deposits.  The amount of volatiles in the magma appears to have decreased during the 1600 eruption, indicating that the magmas originated either in two separate magma chambers or from one zoned magma chamber. , Historians' writings about conditions in Arequipa tell of religious processions seeking to soothe the divine anger, people praying all day and those who had lost faith in the church resorting to magic spells as the eruption was underway, while in Moquegua children were reportedly running around and women screaming. Huaynaputina Volcano, Peru Huaynaputina is a relatively inconspicuous volcano that was the source of one of the largest historical eruptions of the central Andes in 1600 AD. The noise of the eruption was perceived as resembling artillery fire. , The eruption had a devastating impact on the region. , Between 4,000–5,000 metres (13,000–16,000 ft) in elevation mean temperatures are about 6 °C (43 °F) with cold nights, while at Omate, mean temperatures reach 15 °C (59 °F) with little seasonal variation. , The eruption was accompanied by intense earthquakes, deafening explosions and noises that could be heard in Lima and as far as one thousand kilometres away. , Tephra and block-and-ash flows deposits from Holocene eruptions can be found within the amphitheatre. Materials provided by University of California - Davis. It was the site of the largest historical eruption in South America, which occurred in 1600 and erupted an estimated 30 cubic km of dacitic tephra, including ash fall and pyroclastic flow deposits. The eruption would have decreased the atmospheric water content and thus strength of the monsoonal moisture transport towards the plateau. Epidemics ensued, although the epidemics in East Asia erupted under different weather conditions and linking them to the Huaynaputina eruption may not be straightforward.
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