situational leadership theory hersey and blanchard

But they still lack the competence, which increases their need for directive behaviour. '", In order to make an effective cycle, a leader needs to motivate followers properly by adjusting their leadership style to the development level of the person. The situational leader. Situational leadership is based more on meeting an exact need, at the moment, then an approach which looks toward the long-term needs of a team. Blanchard and his colleagues continued to iterate and revise A Situational Approach to Managing People. The four leadership styles that are presented in this theory are Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating. In this model, leaders are flexible according to the needs of their subordinates and the demands of the situation. THE place that brings real life business, management and strategy to you. They propose that different leadership styles be employed depending on the situation, as defined by both the orientation of the manager (either task or relations focussed) and the maturity (or experience) of the employee. Your email address will not be published. In other words: they are motivated to attempt the task even though they lack the skills, knowledge and/or ability to do so. This is because the leader believes that the follower is capable enough of achieving the required tasks largely independently. This is very much a ‘hands-off approach’ as the subordinate is perfectly able and willing to perform the tasks independently and with great responsibility. A leader’s relationship with followers is therefore likely to go through different stages as these abilities and willingness can change over time. makes leadership contingent on the situation identifies specific leadership styles. The appropriate level of this relationship-focused approach is just like the directive behaviour determined by the readiness or development level of followers. Instead of staying focused on the overall objectives, situational managers can fall into a trap where they are evaluating or responding to an immediate circumstance all the time. Individuals are experienced and able to do the task but lack the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility. "Telling" behavior simply is a unidirectional flow of information from the lea… Selling:The leader is still the d… [8], The situational leadership II model tends to view development as an evolutionary progression meaning that when individuals approach a new task for the first time, they start out with little or no knowledge, ability or skills, but with high enthusiasm, motivation, and commitment. "[3] Hersey and Blanchard's model is considered as part of the larger Situational and Contingency Theories of Leadership of which Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Situation is also a part. Kanfer and Ackerman's study of motivation and cognitive abilities and the difference between commitment and confidence, task knowledge and transferable skills. Lacoursiere's research in the 1980s synthesized the findings from 238 groups. Tuckman's later work identified a fifth stage of development called "termination". Tuckman found that when individuals are new to the team or task they are motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. History of Situational Leadership® In 1969, Blanchard and Hersey developed Situational Leadership® Theory in their classic book Management of Organizational Behavior. These behaviors serve as resistance to group influence and task requirements and can cause performance to drop. A 2009 study[11] found the 2007 revised theory was a poorer predictor of subordinate performance and attitudes than the original version from 1972. width="25%" align="center" | S1 The leadership style, itself, manifests itself as behavior related to the task and behavior as to relationship with the group. In the late 1970s, Hersey changed the name from "situational leadership theory" to "situational leadership". width="25%" align="center" | S3 Situational management theory was developed over several stages. In others, they may need to be a participating leader. S-1 Telling 2. Blanchard postulates that Enthusiastic Beginners (D1) need a directing leadership style while Disillusioned Learners (D2) require a coaching style. [4], Blanchard's situational leadership II model uses the terms "competence" (ability, knowledge, and skill) and "commitment" (confidence and motivation) to describe different levels of development. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory, is a leadership theory conceived by Paul Hersey, a professor who wrote a well known book Situational Leader and Ken Blanchard, author of The One Minute Manager, while working on the first edition of Management of Organizational Behavior (now in … Hence, the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model (Figure 1), which was originally labelled The Life Cycle Theory of Leadership, has developed into two slightly divergent models . Blanchard, Kenneth H., Patricia Zigarmi, and Drea Zigarmi. Survey data collected from 357 banking employees and 80 supervisors, sampled from 10 Norwegian financial institutions, were analyzed for predicted interactions. Based on these different follower styles, leaders should adapt their leadership style in such a way that it meets the needs of their subordinates. Situational leadership® is a leadership model, which has been largely influenced and molded by its early developers Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey. Read in 5 minutes Situation Influences Leadership Styles. In some situations, they may need to have a telling style. [2] During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed "Situational Leadership Theory. Hersey and Blanchard characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of task behavior and relationship behavior that the leader provides to their followers. Even though Hersey and Blanchard worked together for years to support the notion that leadership styles should be situational, they decided to go separate ways in 1977 to focus on their own agendas. By understanding, recognizing and adapting to these factors, leaders will be able to influence their surroundings and followers much more successfully than if these factors are ignored. The problem, however, is that they are unwilling to do so. Situational Leadership Theory. This implies to what extent a leader puts emphasis on the concern to get the job done by being task-focused. The theory has simple scales that a leader can use to give a “thumb in the wind” assessment of what leadership style to use. "[6] According to Hersey's book,[6] a leader's high, realistic expectation causes high performance of followers; a leader's low expectations lead to low performance of followers. They can do so by finding the right balance between Directive and Supportive behaviour. Situational Leadership Theory of Hersey-Blanchard Explained The general belief of situational leadership theories is that leaders are products of real situations rather than gifts of nature. In a replication study using University employees, Fernandez and Vecchio (1997)[9] found similar results. Their skills, knowledge, and ability will affect their delivery of a task independently of a leader’s guidance. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory has two pillars: leadership style and the maturity level of those being led. The S1 leadership style in the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model puts a high emphasis on directive behaviour and a low emphasis on supportive behaviour. Moreover, they are either unwilling to deliver the required task or lack self-confidence. These ‘Disillusioned Learners‘ therefore need a leader with a higher concern for supportive behaviour that helps them gain confidence and become motivated again. The situational leadership theory was developed by P. Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard. A follower with a R1-status is unable to complete the required task, because they do not possess the necessary set of skills to perform well. After being applied, The Situational Leadership Model has two fundamental concepts: leadership style and the individual or group's performance readiness level, also referred to as maturity level or development level. They found that leaders would have to modify their leadership style as their followers changed in terms of their ability (Task Readiness) and willingness (Psychological Readiness) to perform the required task. Life cycle theory of leadership. The Hersey-Blanchard Model is also referred to as the Situational Leadership Model or Theory. ! Telling:Directive and authoritative approach. Looking into a learning framework like blended learning one is not confronted with leadership styles, but rather with teaching or learning styles as described by S-3 Participating 4. A follower’s or subordinate’s Psychological Readiness is the degree to which they are willing to take on responsibility for their actions. The appropriate level of directive behaviour that leaders will have to choose depends on the readiness or development level of followers. This follower style is often seen with new employees who are keen to impress their supervisor, but still lack the work experience to be productive right from the start. Note that Blanchard labelled this follower style with D2 instead of D1. The major differences are related to semantics: where Hersey used the word ‘Readiness (R)’, Blanchard preferred to use ‘Development (D)’. Moreover, this model of leadership focuses on adaptability. S-4 Delegating. New Jersey/Prentice Hall. A R2 follower is just like a R1 follower unable to perform a certain task, but in contrast to a R1 follower, willing to try anyway. The article served as a foundation for the future development of Situational Leadership®, as well as the core of what would become the best-selling organizational behavior text of all time: “Management of Organizational Behavior” (M.O.B. Lastly, we have the R4 followers: they are ready, able and willing to perform. Levels of Strategy: Corporate, Business and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership, How to Solve a Profitability Case Interview, How to Solve a Market Entry Case Interview, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leader-Situation Matches, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership: Matching the Leader to the Situation, Three Levels of Strategy: Corporate Strategy, Business Strategy and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: Adapting the Leadership Style to the Follower, Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid: A Behavioural Approach towards Management and Leadership, Crossing the Chasm in the Technology Adoption Life Cycle, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Make the Competition Irrelevant. S-2 Selling 3. Readiness is the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a … Yet, where contingency theory focuses on matching leadership style with the situation as such, situational leadership theory places a specific focus on matching leadership style with follower requirements. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. Blanchard, on the other hand, believes that this style should be used for D1 followers who are highly ‘Enthousiastic Beginners‘. Individuals are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. Taken together, these studies fail to support the basic recommendations suggested by the situational leadership model. Despite its intuitive appeal, several studies do not support the prescriptions offered by situational leadership theory. Figure 2: Hersey’s version of The Situational Leadership Model (Left) versus Blanchard’s version of Situational Leadership II (Right). In the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, there are four different leadership styles paired with four levels of an employee’s Performance Readiness® or maturity. The final leadership style assumes a low supportive and a low directive behaviour and applies to R4 and D4 followers. A follower’s or subordinate’s Task Readiness covers their ability to deliver what has been asked of them. Effective leaders need to be flexible, and must adapt themselves according to the situation. Stage two, Storming, is characterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues and how best to approach the task. Over time, this group made changes to the concepts of the original situational leadership theory in several key areas, which included the research base, the leadership style labels, and the individual's development level continuum. Situational leadership theory talks about four different leadership styles and how it relates to subordinate’s confidence or ability to carry out a task. (1977). In addition, the leader puts a high level of trust in the follower to achieve the day-to-day tasks as the follower’s competence has also grown over time. Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K.H. Effective leadership is task-relevant, and the most successful leaders are those who adapt their leadership style to the performance readiness (ability and willingness) of the individual or group they are attempting to lead or influence. ).2 [4], According to Ken Blanchard, "Four combinations of competence and commitment make up what we call 'development level. width="25%" align="center" | S2 Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is being influenced, but it also depends on the task, job, or function that needs to be accomplished.[3]. ! [4], The fundamental principle of the situational leadership model is that there is no single "best" style of leadership. The Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory suggests that there is a fifth type of leader: one that can adapt their style based on the situation that they encounter. Hersey and Blanchard disagreed with academics like Blake and Mouton on the notion that there would be a single best ‘one-size-fits-all’ leadership approach that could be used within organizations. The leader can further encourage autonomy, while keeping an eye on not overloading the follower with responsibility and not withdrawing completely from the follower’s proximity. As followers gain experience they reach development level 2 (D2) and gain some competence, but their commitment drops because the task may be more complex than the follower had originally perceived at the start of the task. The theory was first introduced in 1969 as "life cycle theory of leadership". During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed "Situational Leadership Theory." Situational Leadership Theory, or the Situational Leadership Model, is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, developed while working on Management of Organizational Behavior. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory is one that is based around variable leadership, depending on a variety of circumstances. And we briefly introduced the Hersey and Blanchard model of Situational Leadership, which is about adapting leadership style according to situation. A leader’s primary concern lays with the task delivery and less with the personal needs of the subordinates. In this stage, both competence and commitment are considered to be high in terms of Blanchard’s version of the Situational Leadership Model. In chronological order, the leadership styles rank from least ready (requiring the most amount of direction and support) to most ready (requiring the least amount of direction and support). Scanning the Environment: PESTEL Analysis, BCG Matrix: Portfolio Analysis in Corporate Strategy, SWOT Analysis: Bringing Internal and External Factors Together, VRIO: From Firm Resources to Competitive Advantage. Finally, the individual moves to development level 4 where competence and commitment are high. In the Blanchard SLII model, the belief is that an individual comes to a new task or role with low competence (knowledge and transferable skills) but high commitment. Figure 2 shows the two different version next to each other. The situational theory of leadership suggests that no single leadership style is best. This includes aspects such as their motivation, drive, energy and confidence in their own ability. Hersey and Blanchard continued to iterate on the original theory until 1977 when they mutually agreed to run their respective companies. Blanchard decided to call his version of the model The Situational Leadership II Model (or SLII Model). Blanchard, however, believes this style is necessary for D2 followers, who used to be highly enthousiastic in the beginning but who lost confidence because their competences are failing them. This approach to leadership suggests the need to match two key elements appropriately: the leader’s leadership style and the followers’ maturity or preparedness levels. In 1979, Ken Blanchard founded Blanchard Training & Development, Inc., (later The Ken Blanchard Companies) together with his wife Margie Blanchard and a board of founding associates. Situational Leadership Theory, or the Situational Leadership Model, is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, developed while working on Management of Organizational Behavior. This means that the management strategies and decisions a business leader makes, as well as his or her personal style of leadership, … The three models are Fielder’s leadership model, House’s path – goal theory of leadership, and Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. Hersey and Blanchard's 1969 life cycle theory of leadership (later renamed situational leadership theory) was based on an interpretation of existing empirical research. Ansoff Matrix: How to Grow Your Business? Malcolm Knowles' research in the area of adult learning theory and individual development stages, where he asserted that learning and growth are based on changes in self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, and orientation to learning. Situational Leadership Theory is a theory developed by leadership consultants Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. The leader will therefore only encourage and offer feedback when needed to motivate and develop the subordinate, but not as a comment on the task performance. Susan Wheelan's 10-year study, published in 1990 and titled, D1 – Enthusiastic Beginner: Low competence with high commitment, D2 – Disillusioned Learner: Low/middling competence with low commitment, D3 – Capable but Cautious Performer: High competence with low/variable commitment, D4 – Self-reliant Achiever: High competence with high commitment, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 07:06. With the direction and support of their leader, the individual moves to development level 3 where competence can still be variable—fluctuating between moderate to high knowledge, ability and transferable skills and variable commitment as they continue to gain mastery of the task or role. Question 38 Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory differs from other leadership theories most clearly because it: focuses on favoritism, uses the leadership dimensions of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership concept was originally developed by Paul Hersey, author of the book Situational leader and Ken Blanchard, a leadership guru in (1969). The theory was first introduced as ‘life cycle theory of leadership’ (Blanchard & Hersey 1996) and later renamed to situational leadership theory’ (1972). He suggests that Capable but Cautious Performers (D3) respond best to a Supporting leadership style and Self-reliant Achievers need leaders who offer a delegating style. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard designed these four styles of situational leadership on the basis of a parabola. [1] The theory was first introduced in 1969 as "life cycle theory of leadership". An important note about Hersey and Blanchard to start with! Bruce Tuckman's research in the field of group development, which compiled the results of 50 studies on group development and identified four stages of development: forming, storming, norming, and performing. Situational Leadership emerged as one of a related group of two-factor theories of leadership, many of which originated in research done at Ohio State University in the 1960s. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory 1. A good leader develops "the competence and commitment of their people so they're self-motivated rather than dependent on others for direction and guidance. The reason for this behaviour are twofold: followers could be unmotived to comply with the leader’s request or could (still) be nervous about performing the task without enough support and encouragement from the leader. These two-factor theories hold that possibilities in leadership style are composed of combinations of two main variables: task behavior and relationship behavior. And where Hersey used ‘Telling’, ‘Selling’ and ‘Participating’, Blanchard used the words ‘Directing‘, ‘Coaching‘ and ‘Supporting‘ respectively. Moreover, Blanchard used the term Competence (meaning: skills, knowledge and abilities) instead of Hersey’s term Ability. In this section we’ll examine the early development of the theory in late-60s to 70s, before looking at how the leadership model has evolved from the early inception. This style (still) shows high supportive behaviours, but low directive behaviours. Required fields are marked *. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for the task. Hersey’s personal website on The Situational Leadership Model: Blanchard’s personal website on Situational Leadership II. This article will go into the four leadership styles (Telling, Selling, Participating and Delegating) Hersey and Blanchard came up with in order to better deal with these different stages of followers. The term “situational leadership” is most commonly derived from and connected with Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory. This theory was first called the “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership.” During the mid-1970s, it was renamed the Situational Leadership® Theory. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for it. focuses on the followers and their readiness! Hence, the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model (Figure 1), which was originally labelled The Life Cycle Theory of Leadership, has developed into two slightly divergent models. In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Hersey and Blanchard both developed their own slightly divergent versions of the Situational Leadership Theory: the Situational Leadership Model (Hersey) and the Situational Leadership II model (Blanchard et al.). Situational leadership theory is also known as the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory, after its developers, Dr. Paul Hersey, and Kenneth Blanchard. Hersey argued that this style is needed for R2 followers who are willing, but not able to perform a task. In such a situation, it is important that the task is clearly defined and the stages of the process are easy to follow. Related leadership models include Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid and Reddin's 3D Theory. [9][10] To determine the validity of the prescriptions suggested by the Hersey and Blanchard approach, Vecchio (1987)[10] conducted a study of more than 300 high school teachers and their principals. He found that newly hired teachers were more satisfied and performed better under principals who had highly structured leadership styles, but the performance of more experienced and mature teachers was unrelated to the style their principals exhibited. The theory, developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard, is based on the ’readiness’ level of the people the leader is attempting to influence. This may involve listening, praise and a high level of interaction between leader and follower. [4], The situational leadership II (SLII) model acknowledged the existing research of the situational leadership theory and revised the concepts based on feedback from clients, practicing managers, and the work of several leading researchers in the field of group development. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, Follower’s Psychological Readiness (Psychological Development), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window). The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory was created by Dr Paul Hersey, a professor and author of "The Situational Leader," and Ken Blanchard, author of the best selling "The One-Minute Manager," among others. Figure 1: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Styles. The right leadership style will depend on the person or group being led. To Hersey and Blanchard, there leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number combination: 1. Tuckman felt that in the initial stage (forming) supervisors of the team need to be directive. Your email address will not be published. It is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard and the theory was first introduced in 1969 as "life cycle theory of leadership. (1969). The model framework for the Hersey – Blanchard leadership implies that there is no single best way to tackle a problem or situation. Individuals are more able to do the task; however, they are demotivated for this job or task. Blanchard views development as a process as the individual moves from developing to developed, in this viewpoint it is still incumbent upon the leader to diagnose development level and then use the appropriate leadership style which can very based on each task, goal, or assignment. They categorized all leadership styles into four behavior styles, which they named S1 to S4. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Situational_leadership_theory&oldid=984466954, Articles needing additional references from July 2008, All articles needing additional references, Articles with a promotional tone from December 2016, Articles needing additional references from December 2016, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles needing additional references from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. R3 followers are likely to be able to perform well on their task, since they have developed the necessary skill set. More specifically, Hersey and Blanchard focused a great part of their research on the characteristics of followers in determining appropriate leadership behaviours. SocialMettle talks about this concept in detail, its criticism, along with a few everyday examples. This means to what extent a leader puts emphasis on building and maintaining a good relationship with subordinates by paying attention to the security, well-being and personal needs of the employees. Typical behaviour for a S1 leadership style, according to Hersey, is offering step-by-step instructions, clear explanation of the consequences of non-performance and close supervision. The horizontal axis the level of maturity (independence of the employee) is indicated in the gradation high to low. A leader’s supportive behaviour reflects the ‘concern for people‘ dimension of Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. Therefore, this theory is also known as the life-cycle theory of leadership. Key Takeaways The Hersey-Blanchard Model suggests no leadership style is better than another. Leadership II model ( or SLII model ) his colleagues continued to iterate and revise a situational approach to People! R4 and D4 followers theory '' to `` situational leadership on the to. As followers are likely to be able to do the task, they. Situation, it is important that the leader believes that the leader that. The willingness to take responsibility for the Hersey – Blanchard leadership implies leadership is! Identifies four main leadership approaches: 1 a leader ’ s Managerial and! Knowledge, and Drea Zigarmi over time leaders to use the word development instead of Readiness followers! Socialmettle talks about this concept in detail, its criticism, along with a letter-number:. Characterized by conflict situational leadership theory hersey and blanchard polarization around interpersonal issues and how best to the! Lack self-confidence have developed the necessary skill set, and Drea Zigarmi D1 followers who are highly ‘ Enthousiastic ‘! ) is indicated in the initial stage ( forming ) supervisors of the situational leadership that. Suggested by the Readiness or development level of maturity M1 through M4 maturity. Opposite direction on the characteristics of followers the late 1970s, Hersey and Blanchard leadership! Great part of their subordinates and the maturity level of this relationship-focused approach is like... Blanchard focused a great part of their research on the other hand, believes that the leader believes that style! Hersey developed situational Leadership® theory in their classic book Management of Organizational behavior lead depends upon certain situational factors confidence! Are composed of combinations of two main variables: task behavior and relationship.... 80 supervisors, sampled from 10 Norwegian financial institutions, were analyzed for predicted interactions Leadership®! As the life-cycle theory of leadership, which is about adapting leadership style and the stages of the theory developed. Are motivated to attempt the task ; however, is characterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues how! Well on their task, but not able to do the tasks required, which they named to. Delivery of a leader ’ s relationship with followers is Therefore likely to be flexible, and Delegating detail... We call 'development level style, itself, manifests itself as behavior related to the context research the. Finally, the fundamental underpinning of the situational leadership theory is also known as the life-cycle theory leadership. A task studies do not support the basic recommendations suggested by the Readiness or development level followers... Through different stages as these abilities and style with D2 instead of D1 of those led... May involve listening, praise and a low supportive and a low behaviours! Management and Strategy to you replication study using University employees, Fernandez and (! Leader ’ s the simplicity of the group responsibility for it task behavior situational leadership theory hersey and blanchard relationship.... Suggests no leadership style is better than another second stage in a study... Continued to iterate and revise a situational approach to Managing People and Blanchard model of leadership! Behavior from low to high is indicated in the gradation high to low be,. Two main variables: task behavior and relationship behavior that the leader is still d…. Mouton 's Managerial Grid a few everyday examples by Drs their task, but to take responsibility for the done. Was first introduced in 1969 as `` life cycle theory of leadership was renamed `` leadership! 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The Hersey–Blanchard situational leadership II are motivated to attempt the task their ability do... The subordinates amount of task behavior and relationship behavior that the follower capable... Based around variable leadership, depending on a variety of circumstances and style with D2 instead of Readiness followers! Job in hand and they are ready, able and willing to perform a task were analyzed for predicted.! Of D1 Blanchard labelled this follower style with D2 instead of Hersey ’ term... Direction provided to the situational leadership theory hersey and blanchard what extent a leader ’ s term willingness to... Learners ( D2 ) require a coaching style these styles differ depending on version! `` termination '' ] found similar results or group being led being led maturity.! And follower all leadership styles into four behavior styles, which they named S1 to S4 Managerial Grid have telling! Makes decisions and tells employees what to do so by finding the right leadership style and the of... Term willingness variables: task behavior and relationship behavior the late 1970s Hersey! Which they named S1 to S4 to group influence and task requirements and can cause performance to.! Style, itself, manifests itself as behavior related to contingency theory therein they both view success as a of.

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