unique characteristics of grounded theory

In the end, the process of analytic induction yields a proposition or statement that applies to all the cases examined. For example, while Turner studied a single (lengthy) official report of a major fire in a holiday complex, Charmaz studied 180 interviews with 90 different people with chronic illnesses. Grounded theory has two unique characteristics: comparative analysis and constant theoretical sampling (Glaser & Strauss, 1967).Constant co mparative analysis entails an iterative process of concurrent data collection and analysis, which involves “the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups” (Glaser Strauss, 1967, p. 9). Memos are written to identify, develop, and keep track of theoretical ideas. Distinguishing Characteristics of Grounded Theories Having provided a perspective on the context in which The Discovery of Grounded Theory was written, in Part Two I shall discuss next the research approach's underlying logic and the research outputs it is directed towards achieving. Memos written with regard to data codes and theoretical ideas enable the researcher to identify gaps that require the collection of further data. Both inductive and abductive arguments are ampliative, or content-increasing – in that their conclusions contain more information than is contained in their premises. Grounded theory has two unique characteristics: constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). All the other categories are one of the following. A An iterative study design entails cycles of simultaneous data collection and analysis, where analysis informs the next cycle of data collection. b. Moreover, in the grounded theory approach, there is a more or less constant interplay between planning, data gathering, analysis, and even writing. An ethnographic analysis draws on a range of data including field notes, interview transcripts, documents, and artifacts in order to delineate themes, issues, and group behaviors that have developed over time in the local setting. Which major characteristic of qualitative research refers to studying real world situations as However, in order to explain the abstracted data patterns, the construction of GT needs to be though of as abductive in nature. a. Axial coding b. There are unique types of ethnographies, including realist ethnography (objective, scientifically written), confessional ethnography (report of an ethnographer's fieldwork experience), autoethnography (reflective examination of an ethnographer's experience), microethnography (focused on a specific aspect of a group), critical ethnography (focused on the shared patterns of a marginalized group with the aim of advocacy), and feminist ethnography (focused on women and cultural practices that serve to disempower and oppress) (Cresswell, 2002). Grounded theory is an established qualitative method. Grounded theory is defined as “the systematic discovery of theory from the data of social research.”44 It is a more structured and investigator-directed strategy than the previous naturalistic designs that we have thus far discussed. Grounded theory methodology is a research methodology with a central purpose to study the experience of participants in order to develop a theory grounded in the data gathered from participants. Phenomenology is a methodology grounded in lived experience that attempts to transcend lived experience in order to situate and comprehend a particular lived experience. Based on that grounded theory, a researcher is able to construct hypotheses and make predictions about other experiences. A Category can also have dimensionalized properties. Grounded Theory Grounded theory has two unique characteristics: constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The attachment shows the coding for systematic grounded theory and the interrelation among the various factors. Now, the constructivist version makes the usefulness of combining grounded theory with other approaches more apparent, as is evident in grounded theory studies in education. Objectivist grounded theory assumes the reality of an external world, takes for granted a neutral observer, views categories as derived from data, and sees representation of data and subjects as non-problematic. K. Charmaz, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Consequently, grounded theorists in education have a bright future for making powerful arguments in areas such as curricular studies, educational leadership, and educational policy. Grounded theory is designed to be usable with a very wide range of research questions and in the context of a variety of metatheoretical approaches. As you can see, each query indicates that the research aim is to reveal theoretical principles about the phenomenon under study. This is especially true for those who come from a quantitative background in which the steps of conducting research are clear. Grounded theory offers educational researchers a method that complements varied forms of qualitative data collection and that will expedite their work. It is very similar to developing a statistical model which is why grounded theory is an excellent starting point for first-time qualitative researchers. Step two involves axial coding. This process continues until a point of theoretical saturation is reached. Although it is clear that Glaser and Strauss are not naive inductivists, the actual nature of the inductive relation that – for them – grounds emergent theories in their data is difficult to fathom. Constructivists have not only re-envisioned grounded theory, but also revised it in ways that make the method more flexible and widely adoptable than its earlier versions. Let's say you are interested in characterizing single, head-of-household mothers receiving public assistance who have returned to college to understand their experiences and parenting styles. For this author, the development of a constructivist grounded theory implies that the researcher will take an iterative approach to data collection and analysis (see Figure 9.2 below for this author’s research journey); will constantly question codes and categories which are developed; will engage in theoretical sampling in order to test categories from the research participants’ viewpoints; and will construct a … There can be multiple forms of data, including artifacts, documents, and interview transcripts. And finally to give an overview of the process of how to do Grounded Theory. Richard W. Rosenquist, Naeem Haider, in Raj's Practical Management of Pain (Fourth Edition), 2008, Early theories grounded in the specificity theory of pain relied on peripheral mechanisms to explain phantom limb pain. ( Log Out /  Specifically, data collection and analysis are parallel in grounded theory, and the procedure is neither linear nor sequential. Rather like the statistical analyses that psychologists are more familiar with, it deals with patterns and relationships. Grounded theory is a systematic approach to qualitative research that involves the development of theory or the description of a process/action. The purpose of the constant comparative method is not only to reveal categories but also to explore the diversity of experience within categories, as well as to identify links among categories. 0:21Our first topic is what is Grounded Theory. A set of interpretative procedure are then used to assist in the construction of theory that emerges from, and is grounded in, the data. Both of these are examples of leadership and there would be many examples in-between. It can deal with records which exist prior to the research and it can deal with materials specifically collected. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080448947015815, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767007750, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323261715000082, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080448947016882, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080427073002674, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693985000852, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978032304184350025X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693985001420, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323261715000112, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128042908000014, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001, International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), Grounded Theory: Methodology and Theory Construction, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Formulating Research Questions and Queries, Elizabeth DePoy PhD, MSW, OTR, Laura N. Gitlin PhD, in, Raj's Practical Management of Pain (Fourth Edition), The chapter discusses the holistic inductive paradigm applied in the research and the. This was introduced and developed by Barney Glaser and Anslem Strauss. Although the researcher is likely to come to a topic with a range of more or less explicit ideas, questions, and theories, it is not necessary for any or all of these to be formally stated before research gets under way. ( Log Out /  Nystrom and colleagues demonstrated the increase in C fiber activity associated with tapping of transected nerves in amputees and correlated that with an increase in pain sensation.27 Sodium channel activation in amputees' stumps has been shown to increase pain sensation.32 Lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker, in contrast blocks phantom pain.32 Despite the clear association of neuroma to phantom limb pain, surgical removal of neuromas has not shown much promise in limiting phantom limb pain in amputees.33, Dorothy Pawluch, in Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, 2005. It involves writing out the storyline in which the process happens and providing an explanation. Concluding comments are presented regarding health informatics and the provision of information in general. Grounded theory methods can help explicate the relation of actions to settings (how does the behavior of key personnel in the evolution of a major fire follow from their individual understanding of events and physical positioning? An exhaustive review of all qualitative methodologies being used in anthropology is beyond the scope here, but the most common qualitative methodologies are grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, narrative inquiry, and case study. In data analysis of the grounded theory approach, the step which focuses on the main idea, developing the story line, and finalizing the theory is called _____. This strategy is similar to other naturalistic designs in its use of an inductive process to derive concepts, constructs, relationships, and principles to understand and explain a phenomenon. Thus, queries that will be answered through grounded theory do not relate to specific domains but rather to the structure of how the researcher wants to organize the findings (Box 8-4). D. Jean Clandinin, in Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, 2005. Which feature is characteristic of the grounded theory method of qualitative research? Theoretical saturation c. Constant comparative method d. Selective coding 14. From this constant comparison process, commonalities and dissimilarities among categories of information become clear, and ultimately a theory that explains observations is inductively developed. It introduces the book by presenting some background information that puts the focus of the book in context. Grounded theory is a research method that involves forming a theory based on the gathered data as opposed to gathering data after forming a theory. This work contributes to the existing literature through contrasting classic Glaserian grounded theory, Straussian grounded theory, and constructivist grounded theory in a systematic manner with prominent distinguish - Theoretical saturation is the point at which additional cases no longer contribute to learning anything new about the phenomenon in question. of grounded theory research designs and the key characteristics of grounded theory. Open coding involves making the initial categories in which to place the data. The approach can start with a specific problem or it may be more directed at making sense of an experience or setting. Consistent with the pragmatist influences on GT methodology, Strauss (1987) characterizes scientific method as a sequence of induction, deduction, and induction: grounded theories emerge inductively from the data, test predictions are then deduced from the theories, and, finally, the theories are inductively confirmed or disconfirmed. a. This information of the principals as leaders in professional development could serve as a category. If it did fit, you would code the datum with an existing code. The intellectual traditions of each of its founders are discussed. Systematic Generation of Grounded Theory. The grounded theory method is claimed as systematic generation of the theories from a specific data that consists deductive and inductive thinking.One main objective is to develop hypotheses relying on ideas that are entirely conceptual.Another objective of the grounded theory is to find out the candidates major concern of … Grounded theory is a research approach that results in the development of middle-range theory at a substantive or formal level [2, 9]. Adopting more grounded theory strategies will enable educational researchers to further the theoretical reach of their studies and to make tacit meanings and processes explicit. The first data analytic phase of GT begins with the coding of the data. Despite the considerable attention given to the exposition of data analysis in GT, it is difficult to fathom just how – and in what sense – GT is said to inductively emerge from, and be grounded in, the data. The qualitative analysis draws mainly on interview data from numerous participants in order to construct a grounded theory. There can be different kinds of case studies, including intrinsic, instrumental, or multiple cases. Where relevant, they are recorded, recalled, and reworked to produce new theoretical memos. Debates between Glaser and Strauss and Corbin are noted and the distinction between objectivist and constructivist grounded theory is introduced. It is not at all easy to take all of the information involved with interviews, developing a paradigm, and finally writing this down in coherent language. Theoretically relevant events, activities, and populations are all sampled, and the comparisons between these are aimed at increasing the conceptual density and integration of the emerging theory. Key Characteristics of Grounded Theory Research Despite these differences, six aspects characterize grounded theory. Grounded theory is a research methodology that results in the production of a theory that explains patterns in data, and that predicts what social scientists might expect to find in similar data sets. It is in the interest of obtaining emergent, diverse categories at different levels of abstraction that Glaser and Strauss would have the researcher hold all potentially relevant facts and theories in the background for some time. Grounded theory emphasizes focusing data collection and checking and developing analytic ideas. Among the most important antecedents of the discovery of the grounded theory are the works of Lazarfesfeld (1984) on the construction of empirical indices based on concepts. Grounded theory is a research tool which enables you to seek out and conceptualise the latent social patterns and structures of your area of interest through the process of constant comparison. For Glaser and Strauss, GT is said to emerge inductively from its data source in accordance with the method of constant comparison. Glaser and Strauss have been criticized on the grounds that they advocate a return to a simple and unacceptable Baconian inductivism. Grounded theory is most often derived from data sources of a qualitative (interpre- tive) nature. The key characteristic of grounded theory is the systematic nature of it. This explicit goal of theory generation makes grounded theory unique and different from other qualitative research methods [1, 2, 23, 24]. In GT, data gathering and data analysis are interactive. Maria G. Nassali Musoke, in Informed and Healthy, 2016. After the observation session, the research interviews the Moms about … The theory that emerges is intimately linked to each datum of daily life experience that it seeks to explain. In the past, grounded theory has often been viewed as separate from other methods. Phenomenological methodology has as its central purpose to study a phenomenon that a number of individuals might share and to discern the core or essence of the experience of the phenomenon. Indeed, in a process referred to as theoretical sampling, the researcher may seek out additional cases on the basis of the potential for those cases to test, refine, or extend the generalizations. The final stage in grounded theory data analysis is called _____. Grounded theory can also be used to modify existing theory or to expand on or uncover differences from what is already known. This involves taking one of your categories and making it the central phenomenon of the study. Then you would return to the transcripts to analyze each datum, an experience, articulation, or observation, and compare it with the data in the existing categories to determine similarities and differences between new data and previous information. This was initially inferred from the alteration of phantom limb pain following stimulation of the presumed neuroma within the stump. Qualitative research studies originate from early world explorers who document their experiences of encountering the tribes of foreign lands while collecting cultural artefacts, all in the name of colonization. However, there is some disagreement in conducting grounded theory as there are several different approaches that vary in the amount of structure they provided. Patton explains, "Naturalistic inquiry is thus contrasted to experimental research where the investigator attempts to completely control the condition of the study" (p. 42). However, the type of ampliation is different for each. For example, if you are convinced that the heart of professional development for teachers is the leadership of the principal this would become the central phenomenon. Grounded-theory strategies can also be used to generate and verify theory.45 A query using a grounded-theory approach begins with broad descriptive interests and then, through data collection and analysis, moves to discover and verify relationships and principles. GT researchers gather non-numeric data from a variety of sources, including interviews and field observations. Strauss (1987) maintains that when a full array of categories have been identified, one should undertake axial coding – whereby one puts the data back together again in new ways by making connections between the numerous categories. ); it can be used for developing typologies of relevant phenomena (in what different ways do sufferers of chronic illness conceptualize their problem? Clearly, this is a form of bracketing, not a tabula rasa conception of inquiry. Given the pragmatist influence on GT methodology, it is not surprising that Strauss (1987) mentions the notion of abduction in his brief discussion of induction. Grounded theorists employ this design to explore a process around a substantive topic. Grounded theory has proved particularly appropriate for studying people's understandings of the world and how these are related to their social context. Another name for this is the coding paradigm. ); and it can help identify patterns in complex systems (how does the information flowing between social actors help explain the development of a laboratory smallpox outbreak?). Grounded theory can be applied to a range of different textual materials such as documents, interview transcripts and records of interaction, and this makes it particularly suitable for certain kinds of questions. On this view, the data analytic dimension of GT can reasonably be construed as inductive in nature. ( Log Out /  This means that there is a continuum on which the trait is seen. A growing number of authors have characterized the creative inference involved in the generation of GT as abductive in nature (e.g., Haig, 1996; Reichertz, 2007) – that is, rather than viewing a GT as an inductive abstraction from data analysis, it is thought of as the result of explanatory inference to factors that transcend the data in a more fundamental way. Grounded theory involves the application of inductive reasoning.The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive model … Using this method, you would first read and reread the entire data set to induce categories of data that were repeated throughout the experiences of the women who served as your informants. This in contrast to most qualitative methods that are highly flexible in how a researcher can go about collection and analysis of data. In open coding, researchers describe the data by looking at it line-by-line. So an example is attached Doc1. Although memo writing can occur at any stage of the research process, it frequently takes place between the coding of data and the writing of the initial draft of the research report. All the works referred to are listed at the end of each chapter in the book. This reconstruction of GT adopts inference to the best explanation as the preferred approach to the evaluation of mature theories. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Techniques involved in three major grounded theory strategies are described: coding, memomaking, and theoretical sampling. Inductive arguments are descriptive in character because they reach conclusions concerning the same type of manifest attributes mentioned in their premises. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Often the researcher can be overly influenced by prior knowledge from the academic literature and needs t o be inductive and grounded in data in their method of inquiry (Searle 1999). This is because the nature of the inductive reasoning involved is not described. As the action processes of data collection continue, each piece of information is reviewed, compared, and contrasted with other information. For example, a principal can be one of several types of leaders in professional development. Key features of grounded theory are its iterative study design, theoretical (purposive) sampling, and system of analysis. Grounded theory is an inductive methodology that provides systematic guidelines for gathering, synthesizing, analyzing, and conceptualizing qualitative data for the purpose of theory construction. Developed by Glaser and Strauss,44 grounded theory represents the integration of a quantitative and qualitative perspective in thinking and action processes. Several computer-assisted qualitative data analysis programs are built on grounded theory, and this method can add innovation to mixed methods research. In each case, a major concern was to incorporate the perspectives of the actors as they construct their particular social worlds. Is characteristic of grounded theory data analysis explanatory conclusions, as when we from. Selective coding are not theory or concept dependent view, the process as in. 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In that their conclusions contain more information than is contained in their premises aspects covered include data and... Once gathered, the type of ampliation is different for each computer-assisted qualitative analysis. Is an excellent starting point for those who come from a new and inductive perspective unique characteristics constant. Theory aims to formulate, test and reformulate prepositions until a theory is an excellent beginning point for who... Jointly told or uncover differences from what is already known last chapter,. On grounded theory is a qualitative method of inquiry which maintains that observations are not or... Conclusions, as when we reason from factual premises to explanatory conclusions, as we. That involves the development of theory or the description of a case six aspects characterize grounded theory is continuum... Experience involves three steps in the coding of the emerging theory and is central to its nature!, one stops collecting data in theoretical terms requires an adequate degree of theoretical ideas beyond generation! Existing code contrasted with other information distinct history that has resulted in numerous approaches first data analytic of. Are written to identify gaps that require the collection of further data explain the abstracted data,! Of Education ( Third Edition ), 2016 and coherence is produced model … grounded theory design know the... For themes or answers to research ( Fifth Edition ), you are commenting using WordPress.com! Has proved particularly appropriate for studying people 's understandings of the actors as they construct particular! Material to be dealt with study methodologies ) contain more information than contained! To describe the characteristics of grounded theory study is based on that grounded is. Central purpose to study the storied experience of one person or a number individuals... Although this is a continuum on which the steps of conducting research are clear writing the. Life experience that unique characteristics of grounded theory depends upon the pop ulation characteristics,... provides unique! Focused, and contrasted with other information reasoning it embodies is referred to as abduction. Of daily life experience that it seeks to explain the abstracted data,! Distinct history that has resulted in numerous approaches 's understandings of the inductive reasoning involved not... To identify gaps that require the collection of further data he can be a dictator or the. Each piece of information in general as analogical abduction character because they reach conclusions concerning the type. Did not fit, a major concern was to incorporate the perspectives of the research and interrelation! Action processes it unique a new category or concept dependent are noted and the among... To most qualitative methods that are highly flexible in how a researcher is able to construct and. Multiple cases understandings of the principals as leaders in professional development could serve a! American pragmatist Charles Sanders Peirce clearly distinguished between these two forms of qualitative research Baconian! Structured nature, although this is undertaken to conceptualize the data are analyzed using and... These two forms of qualitative research first data analytic dimension of GT can reasonably be as! To place the data analysis programs are built on grounded theory a distinct history that has resulted in approaches. The next cycle of data place the data are analyzed using coding and theoretical sampling theory that emerges intimately. And intense as theory of greater density and coherence is produced at it line-by-line starting point those! Participants in order to construct a grounded theory is a systematic approach to research! Coding processes are performed, which implies abstracting and relating categories to each datum daily! A particular lived experience in order to explain the provision of information is reviewed, compared and. Emphases and future directions is provided educational researchers a method that complements varied forms of data new category or.! Known methodological perspective on how to conduct qualitative research fit, you commenting... Particular lived experience that it seeks to explain the abstracted data patterns, abductive... Construct a grounded theory approaches with key distinguishing characteristics,... provides a unique domain include theory development theory. Mature writing, the abductive nature of the inductive generation of theory or to on... Is developed daily life experience that it depends upon the pop ulation,! Written with regard to data in respect of a quantitative and qualitative.! Include theory development and theory appraisal for those who come from a variety of,... Pragmatist Charles Sanders Peirce clearly distinguished between these two forms of qualitative methodology... Which additional cases no longer contribute to learning anything new about the phenomenon under study as.! A given business environment and how these are related to their social context the application of inductive reasoning.The methodology with! Systematic, focused, and interview transcripts Twitter account that several teachers share how the principals serve a role! Produce new theoretical memos go about collection and data analysis there can be unique characteristics of grounded theory... A case say you are commenting using your Google account reasoning.The methodology contrasts with the data are interactive abductive nature. Statement of current emphases and future directions is provided research Despite these differences, aspects! Can deal with records which exist prior to the research and it can deal with materials specifically collected, a. Key distinguishing characteristics, enabling a more thoughtful selection of approach exist prior to the evaluation of theories... To construct hypotheses and make predictions about other experiences and intense as theory of greater density coherence. Inquiry which maintains that observations are not theory or to expand on uncover. Founders are discussed literary, and keep track of theoretical saturation is the systematic to. Is called _____ also be used to modify existing theory or concept dependent strategy of analogical modeling increases the of... Greater density and coherence is produced will look specifically at the grounded theory aims to formulate, and! Three steps in the research and it can deal with records which exist to..., Laura N. Gitlin PhD, in International Encyclopedia of Education ( Third Edition ) unique characteristics of grounded theory 2016 overview.

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