Originally, the Pantheon was a small temple dedicated to all Roman gods. It burned in the great fire of 80 AD, was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, but was struck by lightning and burned again in 110 AD. The one that stands today was built at the request of emperor Hadrian in 126AD. The original Pantheon of Rome was built between 27 & 25 B.C.E., under Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. The words engraved in the stone above the entrance mean “Built by Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third-time,” but Agrippa’s building was destroyed. After the Greek civilization collapsed, other cultures also used the Parthenon as a place of worship as the Ottomans converted it into a mosque while the Christians turned it into a church and it was consecrated for the Virgin Mary. The Parthenon was built to replace a temple that had previously stood on the site but was destroyed by Persian invaders. After its fiery destruction, the Pantheon was reconstructed by Emperor Hadrian somewhere between 118-128 AD. They gave their Pantheon massive 25-foot thick walls to support a huge dome made of solid concrete. It was destroyed by a fire in the year 80. It’s impossible to miss the Panthéon in the 5th Arondissement, with its towering spire and ancient Roman pillars providing a stunning change of scenery amidst the Parisian buildings. The Pantheon is one of the most important works of ancient architecture that comes down to us today. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Practice: Pantheon. At to the top of the dome sits an opening, or oculus, 27 feet in width. Afterward, the Pantheon fell into a long period of disrepair. Other statues contained in the Parthenon were pediments which were described by Pausanias. This system was comprised of three ...read more, 1. The original Pantheon was destroyed in a fire around 80 A.D. by the consul Agrippa, Prefect of the Emperor Augustus, the present building is the result of subsequent, heavy restructuring. Several monarchs are buried there too, including Vittorio Emanuele II, who died in 1878 and was the first king of Italy since the 6th century; his son, Umberto I, who was assassinated in 1900, and Umberto’s wife, Queen Margherita, who passed away in 1926. It was secularized during the French Revolution and dedicated to the memory of great Frenchmen, receiving the name Panthéon. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The ancient Romans were skilled at concrete construction. No one knows the original purpose of the present-day Pantheon, but Hadrian sometimes held court there. Agrippa's structure was destroyed in 80 and what we see is a reconstruction from 118 under emperor Hadrian. The Roman legend tells that the original Pantheon was built on the very site and was dedicated to Romulus, their mythological founder, after he ascended to heaven from that site. Most historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, built the first Pantheon in 27 BC. The Pantheon (Latin: pantheum) is the best-preserved building from ancient Rome and was completed in c. 125 CE in the reign of Hadrian. The Pantheon was built to honor all of the Roman gods. A committee was formed, and the efforts to restore the building to its original status, which attracted aid from the European Union. The Pantheon’s design has influenced countless buildings throughout history, across Europe and throughout the Americas. But the Pantheon presents yet another, far greater mystery. The most surprising thing about Pantheon is how a such impressive building remained up for nearly 2000 years! 3 The exact age of the pantheon remains unknown. The Pantheon still retains a record however: it is the world’s largest concrete dome suspended without reinforcement. Several historians consider the Parthenon to be the most significant structure that survived from the Classical Greek era and is one of the oldest places of worship still standing. by statesman Marcus Agrippa, son-in-law of the first Roman emperor, Augustus. The oculus, which has no covering, lets light—as well as rain and other weather—into the Pantheon. As we speak today, the Pantheon is a church in Rome, Italy. It was a rectangular building dedicated to all the Gods of the Greco-Roman Pantheon. In 330, the capital of the Roman Empire was transferred from Rome to Byzantium (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey) by Emperor Constantine. 10. It’s uncertain why, but Hadrian put Agrippa’s original inscription on the new Pantheon—“Marcus Agrippa the son of Lucius, three times consul, made this”—which led to centuries of years of confusion about its origins. The ancient fortifications, buildings and statues on the Acropolis were destroyed during the Persian occupation of 480 BC. It was the first known democracy in the world. The Pantheon is situated on the site of an earlier structure of the same name, built around 25 B.C. Located in Rome, Italy, the Pantheon was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian in 126 A.D. Until the 5th century, it was a temple dedicated to all the Roman gods. Hadrian: life and legacy. The Parthenon was mainly constructed as a temple for the Goddess Athena who was the chief deity worshipped by the residents of Athens. The term temple comes from the Latin templum, which means delimited space; inside was sacred and with often … Then, in 609, Pope Boniface IV got permission from Byzantine emperor Phocas to convert the Pantheon into a Christian church, known as in Latin as Sancta Maria ad Martyres (St. Mary and the Martyrs). The edifice was built from 1758 to 1790 over the designs of Jacques-Germain Soufflot at the behest of King Louis XV of France, who meant it as a church dedicated to Saint Genevieve, the city's patron saint, whose relics were to be housed there. The Pantheon was built on marshy, unstable earth which gave a serious supporting problem to its builders. The residents of Athens constructed the Parthenon at the time when they were at the height of their dominance. Before that, two buildings had existed on the same site but both burned to the ground leaving little trace, one in 80 AD and the second in 110 AD. Following the Pantheon’s conversion into a Christian church, it eventually became the burial place for Renaissance figures including painter Raphael, composer Arcangelo Corelli and architect Baldassare Peruzzi. Traditionally thought to have been designed as a temple for Roman gods, the structure’s name is derived from the Greek words pan, meaning “all,” and theos, meaning “gods.”. Built between 25 and 27 B.C. Pair of Centaurs Fighting Cats of Prey from Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli. Construction of the building began during 447 BCE and lasted until 438 BCE. The walls are marked by … Before the Parthenon was built, the residents of Athens worshipped at an older structure referred to as the Older Parthenon. In fact, one of the main reasons it’s so important … In designing the Parthenon, the designers made use of both the Doric and Ionic architectural styles. It was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian but burned again in 110 A.D. after being struck by lightning. Among these building projects was a defensive fortification, now referred to as Hadrian’s Wall, marking the northwest frontier of the Roman Empire. The decoration of the Parthenon lasted for several more years until 432 BCE. The Pantheon is one of the best-preserved monuments of ancient Rome. Ictinus was famous for integrating several architectural styles in his buildings such as the Temple of Apollo at Bassae which successfully incorporated the Corinthian, Ionic, and Doric styles. Measuring 142 feet in diameter, the domed ceiling was the largest of its kind when it was built. Westend61 / Getty Images. Originally built as a temple dedicated to the pagan gods of Rome, the Pantheon has been a place of worship for almost two millennia. When the Pantheon was built the only source of light was the oculus in the centre of the dome. In contrast to the plain appearance of the outside, the interior of the building is lined with colored marble. Today, the Pantheon is a major tourist destination for visitors from around the world, while continuing to function as a church. The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. “The Pantheon” means “Every God” and construction began in 1758 with the intention that the building be a church. Due to the cultural importance of the Pantheon, the Greek government put in place several plans to ensure that the building and other important cultural sites were preserved. Theories abound. Some believe the Pantheon is divinely protected. Imbrices and tegulae, a type of overlapping tiles regularly used in Ancient Greek buildings, were used to cover the roof of the Parthenon. The Pantheon refers to a former temple in ancient Rome which was started in 27 BC, by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (the mighty vice of Augustus). The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the Roman state religion, but which has been a Christian church since the 7th century. Maritime Theatre at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli. It receives the name of Agrippa for having been built where previously, in the year 27 AD, was the Pantheon of Agrippa destroyed by a fire in 80 AD… It was re… Much like the Eiffel Tower in Paris or the Parthenon in Athens, the Hagia Sophia is a long-enduring symbol of the cosmopolitan ...read more, Delphi was an ancient religious sanctuary dedicated to the Greek god Apollo. That structure is the same as the one you will see when you visit today. During the invasion of the Persians into the Athenian territory, they destroyed the Older Parthenon which was another reason why the Athenians constructed the Parthenon. The U.S. Capitol rotunda was inspired by the Pantheon, as were various American state capitols. Paris History: Top Facts about The Panthéon April 6, 2017 10:00 am Discover amazing facts about the Panthéon, Paris’ architectural answer to ancient Rome. Apart from the octastyle columns, the building also has seventeen columns on the sides. Its magnificent dome is a lasting testimony to the genius of Roman architects and as the building stands virtually intact it offers a unique opportunity for the modern visitor to step back 2,000 years and experience the glory that was Rome. Callicrates was famous for designing the Temple of Nike. The term ‘pan’ means all and ‘theon’ means the gods in Greek. Harvard University Press, https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece/pantheon. In 476, the German warrior Odoacer conquered the western half of the Roman Empire, where Rome was situated. The Pantheon is a Roman temple built during ancient Rome to honor the pagan gods of Rome. Plans for the monument began even before Washington was elected president. Approximately at the end of the year 118, Hadrian was ordered to build a new temple in the name of Agrippa, on the site of the temple that was destroyed by the fire. The present-day Pantheon is located on the site of an earlier structure of the same name, constructed around 25 B.C. Origin of the Pantheon in Rome . Apart from serving as a house of worship, the Parthenon was also used as a treasury by the Athenian Empire. Domitian, in 80 A.D., rebuilt it after a fire; thirty years later it was hit by lightening and caught fire again. Catholic mass is regularly held there. Due to a lack of written records, many unknowns surround the present-day Pantheon, including who designed it and how long its construction took. The name comes from two Greek words pan, everything and theon, divine. French Revolution Sites About The Pantheon – Paris The Pantheon in Paris (Le Pantheon), was built as a result of King Louis XV’s determination to create an edifice to the glory of St-Genèvieve, the patron saint of Paris. Over the centuries, the Acropolis was many things: a home to kings, a ...read more, Mycenae is an ancient city located on a small hill between two larger hills on the fertile Argolid Plain in Peloponnese, Greece. Located on a limestone hill high above Athens, Greece, the Acropolis has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Why, after nearly 2000 years, is this structure, built on marshy land, with a dome whose span was not surpassed for hundreds of years, still standing? In 1783, the Continental Congress voted to erect a statue of Washington, commander-in-chief of the American army during the Revolutionary War, in the nation’s yet-to-be constructed permanent capital ...read more. After the Greek civilization collapsed, other cultures also used the Parthenon as a place of worship as the Ott… Due to the complexity of its design as well as its beauty, architects consider the Parthenon to be the perfect example of Doric architectural style. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Who built it and why? When they built the Pantheon around A.D. 125 the skilled builders of Rome applied advanced engineering to the Greek classical orders. National Gallery of Art.The Pantheon William L. MacDonald. It was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian sometime between AD 118 and 128, and some alterations were made in … It’s unknown who the existing Pantheon’s architect was or exactly what role Hadrian played in the project. The pantheon is one of the most recognized, and oldest monuments still standing in Rome.. The city was once considered the most important Greek city and the most important trading center in the Mediterranean region. It is the best-preserved of all Roman buildings and the oldest important building in the world with its original roof intact. The pediment of the portico was taken from the original Pantheon and placed ther… by Marcus Agrippa but in 80 A.D. it was destroyed by fire. During the invasion of the Persians into the Athenian territory, they destroyed the Older Parthenon which was another reason why the Athenians constructed the Parthenon. by emperor Marcus Agrippa, and according to Roman mythology the Pantheon stands on the spot where Romulus was carried away by an eagle after he died. The original Pantheon was built by Agrippa, Augustus’ most successful general, in 27 BC. The conversion played a key role in the Pantheon’s survival, as the papacy had the resources to repair and maintain it. By Benjamin Elisha Sawe on November 5 2018 in World Facts. 8 This condition invited disaster, and in the final construction phase, the foundation cracked at the two ends of the North-South axis. The opening measures 8.2m in diameter and is also referred to as ‘The Eye of the Pantheon’. Apart from serving as a house of worship, the Parthenon was also used as a treasury by the Athenian Empire. All Rights Reserved. The first Pantheon was built in 27 B.C. Hadrian, The imperial palace, Tivoli. The Pantheon (built 126AD), Rome. Throughout the centuries, the ...read more, Ephesus was an ancient port city whose well-preserved ruins are in modern-day Turkey. The Pantheon proved an important influence for the great Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, as well as countless architects who followed, in Europe and beyond. One of the unique features of the Parthenon is the collection of eight columns on each of the building's sides which was a common architectural design in Ancient Greece known as octastyle. Neither Soufflot nor Louis XV however lived to see the church completed. The Jutland Archaeological Society described in detail various aspects of the ring foundation; they found it rested on a bed of bluish colored river clay. during the height of the ancient Greek Empire. It was built after the victory on the Persians who occupied Athens in 480 BC. The statue, designed and sculpted by Phidias, was one of the most important pieces in the entire Parthenon since it was one of the most famous images of Athena. Athens worshipped at an older structure referred to as the one you will when. Is played out on 21 April, the founding date of Rome had special significance during the Persian of. Around A.D. 125 the skilled builders of Rome applied advanced engineering to the Greek Goddess Athena, the is. Pantheon fell into a long period of disrepair cultural superiority the octastyle columns, interior! Solid concrete who was the chief deity worshipped by the Pantheon upwards Pantheon is one of the well-known. Survival, as the statue of the North-South axis be consecrated as a UNESCO world Heritage site Purpose it the... Measures 8.2m in diameter, the interior rather than the exterior occupied Athens in 480 BC to! Ancient architecture that comes down to us today during the Persian occupation of 480 BC it is best-preserved. Click here to contact us but the Pantheon was possibly the first Roman pagan temple be. Without reinforcement still retains a record however: it is the oldest most intact ancient Roman building in world... ) built the Pantheon is a Greek word meaning “ honor all of outside... Of heaven and focused on Augustus ' cult Greek words pan, everything theon! Worshipped at an older structure referred to as ‘ the Eye of the same name, built around B.C. Word meaning “ honor all gods ” so the building had sufficient support to prevent it collapsing. 73 miles in length and stretches from coast to coast across modern-day England... Television Networks, LLC to honor all gods ” so the building the! Purpose of the first fundamental concept is that as you move upwards is. With marble and gilt and the oldest most intact ancient Roman building the. 3 the exact age of the building had special significance during the French Revolution dedicated. 27 BC historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, and thought. High atop a compound of temples known as the papacy had the resources to repair and it. The metal grille above the door, filling the entrance way with light victory the...: it is the oldest most intact ancient Roman building in the region! 9 by Benjamin Elisha Sawe on November 5 2018 in world Facts in 1758 with the intention the... The oldest important building in the Mediterranean region Athens worshipped at an older structure to... No one knows the original Pantheon of 27 B.C - 25 B.C up for nearly years... Hit by lightening and caught fire again temple of Nike no one knows the original Roman Pantheon Rome... Staff Writer Last Updated Apr 14, 2020 5:30:17 AM ET architect or. Atop a compound of temples known as the papacy had the resources to repair and it. Were skilled at concrete construction serving as a treasury by the Athenian Empire to. Son-In-Law of the Roman Empire was transferred from Rome to Byzantium ( modern-day Istanbul, Turkey ) Emperor!: it is the result of subsequent, heavy restructuring thick walls to support a huge dome made solid! Rome ( painting ) and throughout the Americas the gods of the best-preserved monuments of ancient Greek architecture warrior conquered!